|Source:||The herb of Rosmarinus officinalis L.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Carnosic acid can protect neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of targeted cysteines on Keap1.
2. Carnosic acid has antioxidant properties, it is a powerful inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in microsomal and liposomal systems.
3. Carnosic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E show photoprotective potential.
4. Carnosic acid is a class of lipid absorption inhibitor from sage.
5.. Carnosic acid is capable of antiproliferative action in leukemic cells and can cooperate with other natural anticancer compounds in growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects.
6. Carnosic acid has a protective effect on cisplatin induced experimental nephrotoxicity and is attributed to its potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.
7. Carnosic acid has antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens.
8. Carnosic acid can inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, and it is a therapeutic agent for obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||3.0082 mL||15.0408 mL||30.0815 mL||60.163 mL||75.2038 mL|
|5 mM||0.6016 mL||3.0082 mL||6.0163 mL||12.0326 mL||15.0408 mL|
|10 mM||0.3008 mL||1.5041 mL||3.0082 mL||6.0163 mL||7.5204 mL|
|50 mM||0.0602 mL||0.3008 mL||0.6016 mL||1.2033 mL||1.5041 mL|
|100 mM||0.0301 mL||0.1504 mL||0.3008 mL||0.6016 mL||0.752 mL|
J Neurochem. 2015 Feb 18.
|Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.[Pubmed: 25692407]|
|We tested the CNS protective effect of Carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain-barrier to upregulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino (NSA) mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain.|
Phytochemistry. 2015 Jan 29. pii: S0031-9422(14)00558-5.
|Carnosic acid.[Pubmed: 25639596]|
|Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70years ago) and its identification (∼50years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in Carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of Carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of Carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted.|
Nat Prod Res. 2015 Jan 14:1-5.
|Antioxidant activity and mechanism of the abietane-type diterpene ferruginol.[Pubmed: 25588148]|
|The antioxidant activity of the abietane-type diterpene ferruginol was evaluated by comparison with that of Carnosic acid, ( ± )-α-tocopherol and dibutylhydroxytoluene using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene bleaching and linoleic acid assays. Ferruginol had the lowest antioxidant activity of this group using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene methods in polar solvent buffer. However, ferruginol exhibited stronger activity than Carnosic acid and α-tocopherol for linoleic acid oxidation under non-solvent conditions.|
Nutr Res Pract. 2014 Oct;8(5):516-20.
|Carnosic acid inhibits TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.[Pubmed: 25324930]|
|Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to exhibit anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities. However, whether its anti-inflammatory potency can contribute to the amelioration of obesity has not been elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of CA on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.|
J Neurochem. 2008 Feb;104(4):1116-31.
|Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protects neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of targeted cysteines on Keap1.[Pubmed: 17995931 ]|
|In this study, we focused on the neuroprotective effects of one such compound, Carnosic acid (CA), found in the herb rosemary obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis. We found that CA activates the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway by binding to specific Keap1 cysteine residues, thus protecting neurons from oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. In cerebrocortical cultures, CA-biotin accumulates in non-neuronal cells at low concentrations and in neurons at higher concentrations. We present evidence that both the neuronal and non-neuronal distribution of CA may contribute to its neuroprotective effect. Furthermore, CA translocates into the brain, increases the level of reduced glutathione in vivo, and protects the brain against middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion, suggesting that CA may represent a new type of neuroprotective electrophilic compound.|
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Dec;49(12):3090-7.
|Carnosic acid attenuates renal injury in an experimental model of rat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.[Pubmed: 21930180 ]|
|Carnosic acid treatment significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 and ROS generation and enhanced the levels of reduced glutathione, tissue nitrite level and activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST compared to cisplatin control. The present study demonstrates that Carnosic acid has a protective effect on cisplatin induced experimental nephrotoxicity and is attributed to its potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.|
Nutr Cancer. 2001;41(1-2):135-44.
|Carnosic acid inhibits proliferation and augments differentiation of human leukemic cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoic acid.[Pubmed: 12094616 ]|
|Carnosic acid, the polyphenolic diterpene derived from rosemary, is a strong dietary antioxidant that exhibits antimutagenic properties in bacteria and anticarcinogenic activity in various cell and animal models. In the present study, we show that Carnosic acid (2.5-10 microM) inhibits proliferation of HL-60 and U937 human myeloid leukemia cells (half-maximal inhibitory concentration = 6-7 microM) without induction of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Growth arrest occurred concomitantly with a transient cell cycle block in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by an increase in the immunodetectable levels of the universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAFI and p27Kipl. Carnosic acid caused only a marginal induction of differentiation, as monitored by the capacity to generate superoxide radicals and the expression of cell surface antigens (CD11b and CD14) and receptors for the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine. However, at low concentrations, this polyphenol substantially augmented (100- to 1,000-fold) the differentiating effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and all-trans retinoic acid. Furthermore, such combinations of Carnosic acid and any of these differentiation inducers synergistically inhibited proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results indicate that Carnosic acid is capable of antiproliferative action in leukemic cells and can cooperate with other natural anticancer compounds in growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects.|
Chem Biodivers. 2010 Jul;7(7):1835-40.
|Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol.[Pubmed: 20658673 ]|
|Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined with the broth microdilution method. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf extract, which displayed the higher antibacterial activity than the stem extract, led to the identification of Carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3) as the major compounds in the fraction displaying the highest activity, as identified by HPLC analysis. Rosmarinic acid (1), detected in another fraction, did not display any activity against the selected microorganisms. HPLC Analysis revealed the presence of low amounts of ursolic acid (4) and oleanolic acid (5) in the obtained fractions. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of 2 and 3.|