|Chem Biol Interact. 2015 Mar 5;229:26-35. |
|Gastroprotective effect of crocin in ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats.[Pubmed: 25637687]|
|The present study investigated the gastroprotective effect of Crocin in ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rats were allocated into a normal group, an ulcer group, a Crocin-treated group, an ulcer group pretreated with Crocin, and an ulcer group pretreated with omeprazole as a reference anti-ulcer drug. Rats were sacrificed 3h after ethanol administration. Prophylactic administration of Crocin (50mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 3 consecutive days before the administration of 70% ethanol (10 ml/kg, orally) resulted in significant gastroprotection compared to ethanol-ulcerated rats as manifested by significant reduction in the gastric ulcer index. Crocin pretreatment increased ethanol-lowered levels of gastric juice mucin and mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, Crocin significantly decreased ethanol-elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level, myeloperoxidase activity and heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein levels. It also restored ethanol-altered mucosal levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, Crocin-pretreatment alleviated ethanol-induced mucosal apoptosis as revealed by significant down-regulation of cytochrome c and caspase-3 mRNA expression, significant decrease in caspase-3 activity and mitigated DNA fragmentation as indicated by significant decrements in comet parameters. The protective efficacy of Crocin was further supported by histological assessment. No significant difference was observed between Crocin and omeprazole (20mg/kg orally 1h before ethanol administration) regarding their mucin-secretagogue and antioxidant effects, as well as their effects on TNF-α, IL-6 and cytochrome c. On the other hand, omeprazole was superior in enhancing PGE2 level and in alleviating neutrophil infiltration, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation.
Conclusively, Crocin protects rat gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and mucin-secretagogue mechanisms that are probably mediated by enhanced PGE2 release.
|Gen Physiol Biophys. 2015 May 22. |
|Effect of crocin on oxidative stress in recovery from single bout of swimming exercise in rats.[Pubmed: 26001290]|
|Physical exercise could cause muscle and tissue damage due to increase in the formation of free oxygen radicals during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Crocin on parameters associated with oxidative stress in recovery from acute swimming exercise in rats. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rats were divided into eight groups; Normal Control (NC: untreated and did not swim), Crocin Control (CC: received Crocin and did not swim), Exercise-1 (Exe-1: untreated and swam), Exercise-24 (Exe-24: untreated and swam), Exercise-48 (Exe-48: untreated and swam), Exercise+Crocin-1 (Exe-Cro-1: received Crocin and swam), Exercise+Crocin-24 (Exe-Cro-24: received Crocin and swam), Exercise+Crocin-48 (Exe-Cro-48: received Crocin and swam). AST, ALP, LDH, CK, XO enzymes levels increased after swimming in untreated and Crocin-treated groups, but there was a less increase in Crocin-treated groups. The highest MDA levels in serum were determined in Exe-1 compared with all other groups. There was significant difference between control and exercise groups in MDA level (p = 0.033). In contrast, there was significant difference between control and exercise groups in GSH level (p < 0.001). In addition, Crocin given to swimming rats significantly increased GSH levels (p < 0.05) and decreased MDA levels when compared with untreated exercise groups.
In conclusion, Crocin is able to protect liver and skeletal muscle tissue against exercise-induced oxidative damage by preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
|Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 14;543(1-3):116-22. |
|Mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of crocin in rats: crocin inhibits pancreatic lipase.[Pubmed: 16828739 ]|
|The hypolipidemic mechanism of Crocin, an active ingredient in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Crocus sativus L, was examined in rats.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, a 10-day treatment with Crocin significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol level in the daily dose range of 25 to 100 mg/kg. Results of the modified fat-loading method indicated that Crocin inhibited the absorption of fat and cholesterol and this inhibition is closely related to the hydrolysis of fat. In addition, the modified fat-balance method demonstrated that Crocin increased the fecal excretion of fat and cholesterol in rats, but had no influence on the elimination of bile acids. The results of the in situ loop method and enzyme assay indicated that Crocin could not directly block the absorption of cholesterol from rat jejunum but could selectively inhibit the activity of pancreatic lipase as a competitive inhibitor.
These findings suggest that Crocin yielded its hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, leading to the malabsorption of fat and cholesterol.