|Source:||The roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Ginsenoside Rf (Rf)induces G2/Mphase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway, suggests that it may have a therapeutic effect on human osteosarcoma.
2. Ginsenoside Rf produces antinociception in mice.
3. Ginsenoside Rf potentiates U-50,488H-induced analgesia and inhibits tolerance to its analgesia in mice.
4. Ginsenoside Rf regulates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels through pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins in rat sensory neurons, suggests that Rf can act through a novel G protein-linked receptor in the nervous system.
5. Ginsenoside Rf induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.
6. Ginsenoside Rf significantly reduces the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, and ROS, which are most highly activated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and suppresses TNF-α/LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.2484 mL||6.2421 mL||12.4842 mL||24.9685 mL||31.2106 mL|
|5 mM||0.2497 mL||1.2484 mL||2.4968 mL||4.9937 mL||6.2421 mL|
|10 mM||0.1248 mL||0.6242 mL||1.2484 mL||2.4968 mL||3.1211 mL|
|50 mM||0.025 mL||0.1248 mL||0.2497 mL||0.4994 mL||0.6242 mL|
|100 mM||0.0125 mL||0.0624 mL||0.1248 mL||0.2497 mL||0.3121 mL|
Oncol Rep. 2014 Jan;31(1):305-13.
|Induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by ginsenoside Rf in human osteosarcoma MG‑63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.[Pubmed: 24173574]|
|The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of Ginsenoside Rf to human osteosarcoma cells and to explore the anticancer molecular mechanisms of Ginsenoside Rf. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of Ginsenoside Rf to these human osteosarcoma cell lines was dose-dependent, and the MG-63 cells were the most sensitive to exposure to Ginsenoside Rf. Additionally, Ginsenoside Rf induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, Cdk1 and cyclin B1, the activation of caspase-3 and -9 and the release of cytochrome c in MG-63 cells following treatment with Ginsenoside Rf. Our findings demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rf induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that Ginsenoside Rf, as an effective natural product, may have a therapeutic effect on human osteosarcoma.|
Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug 25;640(1-3):46-54.
|Induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.[Pubmed: 20580705]|
|The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and Ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and Ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/Ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Chlorogenic acid and Ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and Ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression.|
Immunol Invest. 2016 Jul;45(5):439-49.
|Suppression of MAPKs/NF-κB Activation Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Action of Ginsenoside Rf in HT-29 and RAW264.7 Cells.[Pubmed: 27224660 ]|
|This study investigated the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of Ginsenoside Rf in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the intestinal tract. It is associated with elevated levels of various inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ginsenosides, the main active constituents of ginseng, have been reported to exert potent therapeutic effects against diverse diseases. However, Ginsenoside Rf treatment for inflammation has not yet been examined. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of Ginsenoside Rf on the inflammatory mediators downstream of p38/NF-kB activation on TNF-α-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7). Our results showed that Ginsenoside Rf significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, and ROS, which are most highly activated in IBD. In addition, Ginsenoside Rf significantly suppressed TNF-α/LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. These results suggest that Ginsenoside Rf contains a compound that has potent intestinal anti-inflammatory effects that could be used to treat diseases such as IBD.|
Life Sci. 2003 Jan 3;72(7):759-68.
|Ginsenoside Rf potentiates U-50,488H-induced analgesia and inhibits tolerance to its analgesia in mice.[Pubmed: 12479975]|
|In the present study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rf (Rf), a trace component of Panax ginseng on U-50,488H (U50), a selective kappa opioid-induced analgesia and its tolerance to analgesia was studied using the mice tail-flick test. In addition, the possible mechanism by which Rf may affect U50-induced analgesia was investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of U50 (40 mg/kg) produced analgesia. Rf (10(-14)-10(-10) mg/kg) on co treatment dose-dependently potentiated the U50 (40 mg/kg)-induced analgesia. Rf (10(-12)-10(-2) mg/ml) did not alter the binding of [3H] naloxone, a opioid ligand and [3H]PN200-110, a dihydropyridine ligand to mice whole brain membrane. Twice daily administration of U50 (40 mg/kg) for six days induced tolerance to its analgesia. Chronic treatment (day 4-day 6) of Rf (10(-14)-10(-10) mg/kg) to U50-tolerant mice, dose-dependently inhibited the tolerance. The inhibition of tolerance to U50-induced analgesia by Rf was not altered by flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist and picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a GABA(A)-gated chloride channel blocker on chronic treatment. In conclusion, these findings for the first time demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rf potentiates U50-induced analgesia, inhibits tolerance to its analgesia, and suggests that Rf affects U50-induced analgesia via non-opioid, non-dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(+2) and non-benzodiazepine-GABA(A)ergic mechanisms in mice.|
Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):928-35.
|Functional expression of a novel ginsenoside Rf binding protein from rat brain mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes.[Pubmed: 11901233]|
|We have shown that Ginsenoside Rf (Rf) regulates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels through pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins in rat sensory neurons. These results suggest that Rf can act through a novel G protein-linked receptor in the nervous system. In the present study, we further examined the effect of Rf on G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels after coexpression with size-fractionated rat brain mRNA and GIRK1 and GIRK4 (GIRK1/4) channel cRNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp techniques. We found that Rf activated GIRK channel in a dose-dependent and reversible manner after coexpression with subfractions of rat brain mRNA and GIRK1/4 channel cRNAs. This Rf-evoked current was blocked by Ba(2+), a potassium channel blocker. The size of rat brain mRNA responding to Rf was about 6 to 7 kilobases. However, Rf did not evoke GIRK current after injection with this subfraction of rat brain mRNA or GIRK1/4 channel cRNAs alone. Other ginsenosides, such as Rb(1) and Rg(1), evoked only slight induction of GIRK currents after coexpression with the subfraction of rat brain mRNA and GIRK1/4 channel cRNAs. Acetylcholine and serotonin almost did not induce GIRK currents after coexpression with the subfraction of rat brain mRNA and GIRK1/4 channel cRNAs. Rf-evoked GIRK currents were not altered by PTX pretreatment but were suppressed by intracellularly injected guanosine-5'-(2-O-thio) diphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable GDP analog. These results indicate that Rf activates GIRK channel through an unidentified G protein-coupled receptor in rat brain and that this receptor can be cloned by the expression method demonstrated here.|
Brain Res. 1998 May 11;792(2):218-28.
|Ginsenoside Rf, a trace component of ginseng root, produces antinociception in mice.[Pubmed: 9593902]|
|Ginseng root, a traditional oriental medicine, contains more than a dozen biologically active saponins called ginsenosides, including one present in only trace amounts called Ginsenoside Rf (Rf). Previously, we showed that Rf inhibits Ca2+ channels in mammalian sensory neurons through a mechanism requiring G-proteins, whereas a variety of other ginsenosides were relatively ineffective. Since inhibition of Ca2+ channels in sensory neurons contributes to antinociception by opioids, we tested for analgesic actions of Rf. We find dose-dependent antinociception by systemic administration of Rf in mice using two separate assays of tonic pain: in the acetic acid abdominal constriction test, the ED50 was 56+/-9 mg/kg, a concentration similar to those reported for aspirin and acetaminophen in the same assay; in the tonic phase of the biphasic formalin test, the ED50 was 129+/-32 mg/kg. Rf failed to affect nociception measured in three assays of acute pain: the acute phase of the formalin test, and the thermal (49 degrees C) tail-flick and increasing-temperature (3 degrees C/min) hot-plate tests. The simplest explanation is that Rf inhibits tonic pain without affecting acute pain, but other possibilities exist. Seeking a cellular explanation for the effect, we tested whether Rf suppresses Ca2+ channels on identified nociceptors. Inhibition was seen on large, but not small, nociceptors. This is inconsistent with a selective effect on tonic pain, so it seems unlikely that Ca2+ channel inhibition on primary sensory neurons can fully explain the behavioral antinociception we have demonstrated for Rf.|