|Source:||The roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Ginsenoside Rf (Rf) has antinociception through a mechanism requiring G-proteins to inhibit Ca2+ channels in mammalian sensory neurons.
2. Rf induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.
3. Rf may as a template for designing additional modulators of neuronal Ca2+ channels.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.2484 mL||6.2421 mL||12.4842 mL||24.9685 mL||31.2106 mL|
|5 mM||0.2497 mL||1.2484 mL||2.4968 mL||4.9937 mL||6.2421 mL|
|10 mM||0.1248 mL||0.6242 mL||1.2484 mL||2.4968 mL||3.1211 mL|
|50 mM||0.025 mL||0.1248 mL||0.2497 mL||0.4994 mL||0.6242 mL|
|100 mM||0.0125 mL||0.0624 mL||0.1248 mL||0.2497 mL||0.3121 mL|
Oncol Rep. 2014 Jan;31(1):305-13.
|Induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by ginsenoside Rf in human osteosarcoma MG‑63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.[Pubmed: 24173574]|
|The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of Ginsenoside Rf to human osteosarcoma cells and to explore the anticancer molecular mechanisms of Ginsenoside Rf. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of Ginsenoside Rf to these human osteosarcoma cell lines was dose-dependent, and the MG-63 cells were the most sensitive to exposure to Ginsenoside Rf. Additionally, Ginsenoside Rf induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, Cdk1 and cyclin B1, the activation of caspase-3 and -9 and the release of cytochrome c in MG-63 cells following treatment with Ginsenoside Rf. Our findings demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rf induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that Ginsenoside Rf, as an effective natural product, may have a therapeutic effect on human osteosarcoma.|
Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug 25;640(1-3):46-54.
|Induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.[Pubmed: 20580705]|
|The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and Ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and Ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/Ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Chlorogenic acid and Ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and Ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression.|
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(1):96-100.
|Microbial conversion of rare ginsenoside Rf to 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by Aspergillus niger.[Pubmed: 20057152]|
|In this study, rare Ginsenoside Rf was transformed into 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT(S)) by glycosidase from Aspergillus niger. By investing the reaction conditions, the optimal conditions were obtained, as follows: pH 5.0, temperature 55 degrees C, and substrate concentration 1.25 mmol/l. Under optimal conditions, PPT(S) (1.13 micromol) prepared from 1.25 mumol Rf showed a higher yield (90.4%). The enzymatic reaction was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, suggesting the transformation pathway: Rf-->Rh1(S)-->PPT(S).|
Molecules. 2009 Jun 8;14(6):2043-8.
|Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rf to Rh1 by recombinant beta-glucosidase.[Pubmed: 19513004]|
|An Aspergillus niger strain was isolated from the soil around ginseng fruit. In vitro enzyme assays showed that this strain had the ability to transform total ginsenosides (TGS) into several new products. In a further biochemical study, a beta-glucosidase gene isolated from this strain, bgl1, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. His-tagged BGL1 protein (approximately 170 kD) showed the ability to transform Ginsenoside Rf into Rh(1).|