||6-Gingerol possesses anti-adipogenic, anti-tumorigenic, anti-invasive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic activities, it stimulates apoptosis through upregulation of NAG-1 and G1 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1, multiple mechanisms appear to be involved in 6-gingerol action, including protein degradation as well as β-catenin, PKCε, and GSK-3β pathways. 6-Gingerol can effectively suppress adipogenesis and that it exerts its role mainly through the significant down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα and subsequently inhibits FAS and aP2 expression, also inhibit differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by attenuating the Akt/GSK3β pathway.|
|Phytomedicine. 2013 Apr 15;20(6):481-7. |
|6-gingerol prevents adipogenesis and the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells.[Pubmed: 23369342 ]|
|6-Gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone) is one of the pungent constituents of Zingiber zerumbet (L) Smith (Zingiberaceae family).|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this study, we investigated the effects of 6-Gingerol on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. After treatment with 6-Gingerol in differentiation medium for 4 or 8 days, the 3T3-L1 cells were lysed for experimental analysis. Cells were stained with Oil-Red-O to detect oil droplets in adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 cells were lysed and measured for triglyceride contents. The protein expression of adipogenesis-related transcription factor was evaluated by Western blot analysis. 6-Gingerol suppressed oil droplet accumulation and reduced the droplet size in a concentration (5-15 μg/ml)- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 6-Gingerol reduced the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α. Additionally, the protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) decreased upon treatment with 6-Gingerol. Meanwhile, 6-Gingerol diminished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and GSK3β (Ser9).
These results suggest that 6-Gingerol effectively suppresses adipogenesis and that it exerts its role mainly through the significant down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα and subsequently inhibits FAS and aP2 expression. 6-Gingerol also inhibited differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by attenuating the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of 6-Gingerol.
|Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Nov;54(11):1618-27. |
|Anti-invasion effects of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two active components in ginger, on human hepatocarcinoma cells.[Pubmed: 20521273]|
|Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer and is highly metastatic. Metastasis is considered to be the major cause of death in cancer patients. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-invasion activity of 6-shogaol and 6-Gingerol, two compounds found in ginger, on hepatoma cells.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The migratory and invasive abilities of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated HepG2 and PMA-untreated Hep3B cells were both reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with 6-shogaol and 6-Gingerol. Upon incubation of PMA-treated HepG2 cells and PMA-untreated Hep3B cells with 6-shogaol and 6-Gingerol, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity decreased, whereas the expression of tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase protein (TIMP)-1 increased in both cell types. Additionally, urokinase-type plasminogen activator activity was dose-dependently decreased in Hep3B cells after incubation with 6-shogaol for 24 h. Analysis with semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the regulation of MMP-9 by 6-shogaol and 6-Gingerol and the regulation of TIMP-1 by 6-shogaol in Hep3B cells may on the transcriptional level.
These results suggest that 6-shogaol and 6-Gingerol might both exert anti-invasive activity against hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and that 6-shogaol could further regulate urokinase-type plasminogen activity.
|Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Apr 15;185(1):12-7. |
|Genotoxic effect of 6-gingerol on human hepatoma G2 cells.[Pubmed: 20167213 ]|
|6-Gingerol, a major component of ginger, has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, some dietary phytochemicals possess pro-oxidant effects as well, and the risk of adverse effects is increased by raising the use of doses. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of 6-Gingerol and to clarify the mechanisms, using human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Exposure of the cells to 6-Gingerol caused significant increase of DNA migration in comet assay, increase of micronuclei frequencies at high concentrations at 20-80 and 20-40 microM, respectively. These results indicate that 6-Gingerol caused DNA strand breaks and chromosome damage. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we tested lysosomal membrane stability, mitochondrial membrane potential, the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, the level of oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results showed that lysosomal membrane stability was reduced after treatment by 6-Gingerol (20-80 microM) for 40 min, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased after treatment for 50 min, GSH and ROS levels were significantly increased after treatment for 60 min.
These suggest 6-Gingerol induces genotoxicity probably by oxidative stress; lysosomal and mitochondrial damage were observed in 6-Gingerol-induced toxicity.