|Source:||The herbs of Hedera nepalensis|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Hederagenin and crude saponin have anti-inflammatory activities.
2. Hederagenin may be a promising therapeutic candidate for human colon cancer .
3. Hederagenin and related saponins have anticomplementary activity, they can evoke hemolysis on the erythrocytes.
4. Hederagenin has antidepressant-like effects , which may be associated with monoamine neurotransmitters and 5-HTT mRNA expression.
5. Hederagenin and its 3-O-glycosides have antimutagenic activity and have cytotoxic on various tumor cell lines, P-388, L-1210, U-937, HL-60, SNU-5 and HepG2, it could be suitable for cancer treatment chemopreventive drugs.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.1155 mL||10.5775 mL||21.1551 mL||42.3101 mL||52.8877 mL|
|5 mM||0.4231 mL||2.1155 mL||4.231 mL||8.462 mL||10.5775 mL|
|10 mM||0.2116 mL||1.0578 mL||2.1155 mL||4.231 mL||5.2888 mL|
|50 mM||0.0423 mL||0.2116 mL||0.4231 mL||0.8462 mL||1.0578 mL|
|100 mM||0.0212 mL||0.1058 mL||0.2116 mL||0.4231 mL||0.5289 mL|
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Oct 24;14:412.
|Hederagenin from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.) induces apoptosis in human LoVo colon cells through the mitochondrial pathway.[Pubmed: 25342273]|
|MTT assay showed that Hederagenin could significantly inhibit the viability of LoVo cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner by IC50 of 1.39 μM at 24 h and 1.17 μM at 48 h. The apoptosis ratio was significantly increased to 32.46% and 81.78% by the induction of Hederagenin (1 and 2 μM) in Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Hederagenin could also induce the nuclear changes characteristic of apoptosis by Hoechst 33342 nuclear stainining under fluorescence microscopy. DCFH-DA fluorescence staining and flow cytometry showed that Hederagenin could increase significantly ROS generation in LoVo cells. Real-time PCR showed that Hederagenin induced the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin. Western blotting analysis showed that Hederagenin decreased the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2, procaspase-9, procaspase-3, and polyADP- ribosepolymerase (PARP) were increased, while the expressions of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9 were increased. However, there was no significant change on caspase-8. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential might contribute to the apoptosis of Hederagenin in LoVo cells. Our findings suggested that Hederagenin might be a promising therapeutic candidate for human colon cancer.|
Pharm Biol. 2015 Mar;53(3):368-77.
|Involvement of norepinephrine and serotonin system in antidepressant-like effects of hederagenin in the rat model of unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced depression.[Pubmed: 25471378]|
|This study compared the antidepressant ability of FAE with that of Hederagenin in mice and further investigated the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanisms of Hederagenin in rats subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice received FAE (50 mg/kg) and HG (20 mg/kg) once a day via intragastric administration (i.g.) for 3 weeks. The anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of FAE and Hederagenin were compared using elevated plus maze (EPM) and behavioral despair tests including tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Antidepressant effects of Hederagenin (5 mg/kg) were assessed using the UCMS depressive rat model. Moreover, the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and relevant gene expression in UCMS rats' hippocampi were determined through high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. RESULTS: The results of our preliminary screening test suggest that Hederagenin at 20 mg/kg, while not FAE at 50 mg/kg, significantly decreased the immobility in both TST and FST compared with the vehicle group when administered chronically; however, there were no significant differences observed between the Hederagenin and the FAE group. Chronic administration of Hederagenin failed to significantly reverse the altered crossing and rearing behavioral performance, time spent in the open arm and closed entries in the EPM, even if they showed an increased tendency, but Hederagenin significantly increased the percent of sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test (SPT) and decreased the immobility time in the FST. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm the antidepressant-like effects of Hederagenin in a behavioral despair test and UCMS rat model, which may be associated with monoamine neurotransmitters and 5-HTT mRNA expression.|
Langmuir. 2014 Apr 29;30(16):4556-69.
|Domain formation and permeabilization induced by the saponin α-hederin and its aglycone hederagenin in a cholesterol-containing bilayer.[Pubmed: 24690040]|
|Hederagenin, are able to induce the formation of lipid domains. We show on multilamellar vesicles (MLV), giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV), and supported planar bilayers (SPB) that the presence of sugar units on the sapogenin accelerates domain formation and increases the proportion of sterols within these domains. The domain shape is also influenced by the presence of sugars because α-hederin and Hederagenin induce the formation of tubular and spherical domains, respectively. These highly curved structures should result from the induction of membrane curvature by both compounds. In addition to the formation of domains, α-hederin and Hederagenin permeabilize GUV. The formation of membrane holes by α-hederin comes along with the accumulation of lipids into nonbilayer structures in SPB. This process might be responsible for the permeabilizing activity of both compounds. In LUV, permeabilization by α-hederin was sterol-dependent. The biological implications of our results and the mechanisms involved are discussed in relation to the activity of saponins and triterpenic acids on membrane rafts, cancer cells, and hemolysis.|
Biochemistry. 2009 Apr 21;48(15):3477-82.
|Alpha-hederin, but not hederacoside C and hederagenin from Hedera helix, affects the binding behavior, dynamics, and regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.[Pubmed: 19278262 ]|
|Hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and Hederagenin are saponins of dry extracts obtained from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.). Internalization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-GFP fusion proteins after stimulation with 1 microM terbutaline was inhibited by preincubation of stably transfected HEK293 cells with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h, whereas neither hederacoside C nor Hederagenin (1 microM each) influenced this receptor regulation. After incubation of A549 cells with 5 nM Alexa532-NA, two different diffusion time constants were found for beta(2)AR-Alexa532-NA complexes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Evaluation of the autocorrelation curve revealed diffusion time constants: tau(bound1) = 1.4 +/- 1.1 ms (n = 6) found for receptor-ligand complexes with unrestricted lateral mobility, and tau(bound2) = 34.7 +/- 14.1 ms (n = 6) for receptor-ligand complexes with hindered mobility. The distribution of diffusion time constants was 24.3 +/- 2.5% for tau(bound1) and 8.7 +/- 4.3% for tau(bound2) (n = 6). A549 cells pretreated with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h showed dose-dependent alterations in this distribution with 37.1 +/- 5.5% for tau(bound1) and 4.1 +/- 1.1% for tau(bound2). Simultaneously, the level of Alexa532-NA binding was significantly increased from 33.0 +/- 6.8 to 41.2 +/- 4.6%. In saturation experiments, alpha-hederin did not influence the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor density (B(max)), whereas the K(D) value for Alexa532-NA binding decreased from 36.1 +/- 9.2 to 24.3 +/- 11.1 nM. Pretreatment of HASM cells with alpha-hederin (1 microM, 24 h) revealed an increased intracellular cAMP level of 13.5 +/- 7.0% under stimulating conditions. Remarkably, structure-related saponins like hederacoside C and Hederagenin did not influence either the binding behavior of beta(2)AR or the intracellular cAMP level.|
Planta Med. 2000 May;66(4):329-32.
|Essential moiety for antimutagenic and cytotoxic activity of hederagenin monodesmosides and bisdesmosides isolated from the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus.[Pubmed: 10865448 ]|
|For the elucidation of the antimutagenic and cytotoxic principles from the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus, seven isolated components of this crude drug were tested in the Ames test and the MTT test. Hederagenin and its monodesmosides, kalopanaxsaponin A and I in addition to its bisdesmosides, kalopanaxsaponin B and H, showed potent antimutagenic activities against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). However, they had no inhibitory effects on mutagenicity induced by the direct mutagen, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). This suggested that Hederagenin glycosides might effectively prevent the metabolic activation of AFB1 or scavenge the electrophilic intermediate capable of inducing mutation. Hederagenin was found to be an essential moiety for the exhibition of antimutagenicity. Moreover, Hederagenin and its 3-O-glycosides were found to be cytotoxic on various tumor cell lines, P-388, L-1210, U-937, HL-60, SNU-5 and HepG2, while 3,28-di-O-glycosides of Hederagenin were not cytotoxic. Hence, Hederagenin and its 3-O-glycosides could be suitable for cancer treatment chemopreventive drugs.|
Arch Pharm Res. 1999 Jun;22(3):317-9.
|In vitro anticomplementary activity of hederagenin saponins isolated from roots of Dipsacus asper.[Pubmed: 10403139]|
|Anticomplementary activity of Hederagenin and related saponins isolated from Dipsacus asper was investigated in vitro. HN saponin F (3) was most potent with IC50 value of 3.7x10(-5) M followed by 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-beta-L-+ ++arabi nopyranosyl Hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-glucopyrano side (8), 3-O-beta-L-arabinopyranosyl Hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), dipsacus saponin A (4), and Hederagenin (1) on the classical pathway (CP) of complement system, while the saponins 3-5 did not show the inhibition of hemolysis and rather increase the hemolysis on the alternative pathway (AP). However, all of C-3 monodesmosides [prosapogenin CP (2), dipsacus saponin B (6), and dipsacus saponin C (7)] evoked hemolysis directly on the erythrocytes.|