|Source:||The peel of Citrus maxima|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Naringin exhibits antioxidant effects, it reduces Ara-C-induced oxidative stress through both an inhibition of the generation of ROS production and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities; it blocks apoptosis caused by Ara-C-induced oxidative stress, resulting in the inhibition of the cytotoxicity of Ara-C.
2. Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice, it is a single dietary constituent clinically modulating drug transport.
3. Naringin has anti-atherogenic effects, the effect is involved with a decreased hepatic cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and with the downregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene expression.
4. Naringin and hesperidin both play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by increasing hepatic glycolysis and glycogen concentration and/or by lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis.
5. Naringin has protective effects against post-stroke depression induced neurobehavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in mice, the nitric oxide mechanism involves in it.
6. Naringin possesses anti-lipoperoxidative and antioxidant activity in experimentally induced cardiac toxicity, has cardioprotective potential.
7. Naringin inhibits growth potential of human triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway, it may be used as a potential supplement for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.
8. Naringin attenuates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs-AP-1 and IKKs-IκB-NF-κB signaling pathways.
9. Naringin and lovastatin contribute to hypocholesterolemic action via down-regulated ACAT activity and higher excretion of fecal sterols in response to high-cholesterol feeding, naringin supplement seems to preserve tissue morphology from damages induced by high cholesterol diet.
10. Naringin has antiulcer effects on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats.
11. Naringin has protective effect against colchicine-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.7226 mL||8.6128 mL||17.2256 mL||34.4513 mL||43.0641 mL|
|5 mM||0.3445 mL||1.7226 mL||3.4451 mL||6.8903 mL||8.6128 mL|
|10 mM||0.1723 mL||0.8613 mL||1.7226 mL||3.4451 mL||4.3064 mL|
|50 mM||0.0345 mL||0.1723 mL||0.3445 mL||0.689 mL||0.8613 mL|
|100 mM||0.0172 mL||0.0861 mL||0.1723 mL||0.3445 mL||0.4306 mL|
J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Jun;92(2):166-70.
|Effects of naringin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in P388 cells.[Pubmed: 12832847]|
|Flavonoids are widely recognized as naturally occurring antioxidants. Naringin (NG) is one of the flavonoid components in citrus fruits such as grapefruit. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes cytotoxicity through oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this paper, we examined the effects of NG on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mouse leukemia P388 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Apoptosis and DNA damage were analyzed by measuring chromatin condensation and Comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis), respectively. H2O2-induced cytotoxicity was significantly attenuated by NG or the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a typical intracellular antioxidant. NG suppressed chromatin condensation and DNA damage induced by H2O2. These results indicate that NG from natural products is a useful drug having antioxidant and anti-apoptopic properties.|
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Apr;81(4):495-502.
|Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice.[Pubmed: 17301733 ]|
|Naringin most probably directly inhibited enteric OATP1A2 to decrease oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Inactivation of enteric CYP3A4 was probably not involved. Naringin appears to have sufficient safety, specificity, and sensitivity to be a clinical OATP1A2 inhibitor probe. Inherent OATP1A2 activity may be influenced by genetic factors. This appears to be the first report of a single dietary constituent clinically modulating drug transport.|
J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):121-7.
|Effect of naringin on hemodynamic changes and left ventricular function in renal artery occluded renovascular hypertension in rats.[Pubmed: 25883516]|
|BACKGROUND: Renal artery occlusion (RAO) induced hypertension is a major health problem associated with structural and functional variations of the renal and cardiac vasculature. Naringin a flavanone glycoside derived possesses metal-chelating, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of Naringin in RAO induced hypertension in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided into five groups Sham, RAO, Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg). Animals were pretreated with Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg p.o) for 4 weeks. On the last day of the experiment, left renal artery was occluded with renal bulldog clamp for 4 h. After assessment of hemodynamic and left ventricular function various biochemical (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione [GSH] and malondialdehyde [MDA]) and histological parameters were determined in the kidney. RESULTS: RAO group significantly (P < 0.001) increased hemodynamic parameters at 15, 30 and 45 min of clamp removal. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) treated groups showed a significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters at 15 min. after clamp removal that remained sustained for 60 min. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) treated groups showed significant improvement in left ventricular function at 15, 30 and 45 min after clamp removal. Alteration in level of SOD, GSH and MDA was significantly restored by Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) treatment. It also reduced histological aberration induced in kidney by RAO.|
J. Nutr., 2004, 134(10):2499-503.
|Naringin prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis and promotes osteoclasts apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.[Pubmed: 15465737]|
|Dietary antioxidant compounds such as bioflavonoids may offer some protection against the early stage of diabetes mellitus and the development of complications. Hesperidin and Naringin supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose compared with the control group. Hepatic glucokinase activity and glycogen concentration were both significantly elevated in the hesperidin- and the Naringin-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Naringin also markedly lowered the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase compared with the control group. Plasma insulin, C-peptide, and leptin levels in the db/db mice from the 2 bioflavonoid-supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, plasma leptin was positively correlated with plasma insulin level (r = 0.578, P < 0.01) and body weight (r = 0.541, P < 0.05), and was inversely correlated with the blood glucose level (r = -0.46, P < 0.05). The current results suggest that hesperidin and Naringin both play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by increasing hepatic glycolysis and glycogen concentration and/or by lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis.|
Life Sci. 2010 Jun 19;86(25-26):928-35.
|Nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of naringin against post-stroke depression (PSD) in mice.[Pubmed: 20433854 ]|
|Ischemia reperfusion injury caused significant (increased immobility period, neurological score and decreased locomotor activity) oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentration and depleted reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and altered mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (complex I to IV) as compared to sham treatment. Naringin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated neurobehavioral alterations, oxidative damage and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities as compared to control (ischemia reperfusion) group. Further, protective effect of Naringin (50 mg/kg) was attenuated by l-arginine (100 mg/kg) or sildenafil (5 mg/kg) pretreatment. Further, L-NAME (10 mg/kg) or 7-NI (10 mg/kg) pretreatment with Naringin (50 mg/kg) significantly potentiated their protective effect as compared to their treatment alone. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests the involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of Naringin against post-stroke depression induced neurobehavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in mice.|
Toxicology. 2007 Feb 12;230(2-3):178-88.
|Preventive effect of naringin on cardiac markers, electrocardiographic patterns and lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.[Pubmed: 17188415 ]|
|Diets rich in natural antioxidants are associated with reduced risk of heart diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of Naringin on cardiac troponin T (cTnT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-isoenzyme, cardiac marker enzymes, electrocardiographic (ECG)-patterns and lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Pretreatment with Naringin (10, 20 or 40mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 days positively altered the levels of cTnT, intensity of the bands of the LDH1 and LDH2-isoenzyme and the activities of cardiac marker enzymes, ECG-patterns and lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, Naringin possess cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.|
Toxicol Lett. 2013 Jul 18;220(3):219-28.
|Naringin inhibits growth potential of human triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway.[Pubmed: 23694763 ]|
|Our data demonstrated that Naringin inhibited cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis and G1 cycle arrest, accompanied by increased p21 and decreased survivin. Meanwhile, β-catenin signaling pathway was found to be suppressed by Naringin. In contrast, over-expressing β-catenin by adenoviral vector system in TNBC cells reversed the antitumor activity of Naringin, and regulated p21 and survivin. Correspondingly, the antitumor potential of Naringin was also observed in Naringin-treated MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice, while immunohistochemical analysis of tumors from Naringin-treated mice showed higher expression of p21 and lower expression of survivin and active β-catenin. Taken together, these results indicate that Naringin could inhibit growth potential of TNBC cells by modulating β-catenin pathway, which suggests Naringin might be used as a potential supplement for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.|
Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Sep 5;690(1-3):207-13.
|Naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs-AP-1 and IKKs-IκB-NF-κB signaling pathways.[Pubmed: 22766066 ]|
|The results showed that Naringin of 100 μM not only significantly decreased EGF-induced overexpressions of both MUC5AC mucin and mRNA in A549 cells, but also suppressed the phosphorylation of EGF receptor, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as nucleus NF-κB p65 and AP-1. Moreover, any of three MAPKs inhibitors (PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125) significantly inhibited EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion. And as compared to MG132, the inhibitor κB (IκB) phosphorylation inhibitor of SN50 was more effective in reducing EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion because of suppression of nucleus AP-1. Meanwhile, as compared to Naringin, both SP600125 and azithromycin were less effective in suppressing EGF-induced secretion of MUC5AC because of the unchanged nucleus NF-κB p65. These results indicated that Naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/IκB/NF-κB signaling pathways.|
Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):1025-34.
|Antihypercholesterolemic property of naringin alters plasma and tissue lipids, cholesterol-regulating enzymes, fecal sterol and tissue morphology in rabbits.[Pubmed: 15380892 ]|
|It would appear that both Naringin and lovastatin contributed to hypocholesterolemic action via down-regulated ACAT activity and higher excretion of fecal sterols in response to high-cholesterol feeding. Also, Naringin supplement seemed to preserve tissue morphology from damages induced by high cholesterol diet.|
Pharmacology. 1994 Sep;49(3):144-50.
|Antiulcer effect of naringin on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats.[Pubmed: 7972328]|
|This study was designed to determine the gastroprotective properties of Naringin on and the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins in mucosal injury produced by absolute ethanol. Oral pretreatment with the highest dose of Naringin (400 mg/kg), 60 min before absolute ethanol was the most effective antiulcer treatment. Subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) to the animals treated with Naringin (400 mg/kg) partially inhibited gastric protection, but the prostaglandin E2 determination did not show any increase in prostanoid levels. The contents of gastric mucus and total proteins were not significantly modified. Naringin-treated rats showed a marked increase in hexosamine levels, but this increase was less in animals pretreated with indomethacin. These results show that Naringin has a 'cytoprotective' effect against ethanol injury in the rat, but this property appears to be mediated by non-prostaglandin-dependent mechanisms.|
J Med Food. 2010 Aug;13(4):976-84.
|Protective effect of naringin, a citrus flavonoid, against colchicine-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats.[Pubmed: 20673063 ]|
|Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder. Central administration of colchicine is well known to cause cognitive impairment and oxidative damage, which simulates sporadic dementia of the Alzheimer type in humans. The present study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of Naringin against the colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15 microg/5 microL), administered intracerebroventricularly, resulted in poor memory retention in both the Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task paradigms and caused marked oxidative damage. It also caused a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment was given daily for a period of 25 days beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration. Chronic treatment with Naringin caused significant improvement in the cognitive performance and attenuated oxidative damage, as evidenced by lowering of malondialdehyde level and nitrite concentration and restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and reduced glutathione levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity compared to control. The present study highlights the therapeutic potential of Naringin against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage.|