1. Nicotine is a potent inhibitor of cardiac A-type K+ channels, with blockade probably due to block of closed and open channels, this action may contribute to the ability of nicotine to affect cardiac electrophysiology and induce arrhythmias.
2. Nicotine has a two-phase effect on osteoblasts,showing as low level of nicotine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of the rabbit osteoblasts while the high level gets the opposite effect, vitamin C can antagonize the inhibitory effect of higher concentration of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in part.
3. Chronic nicotine exposure augments atherosclerosis by enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, which, in turn, activate atherogenic NF-kappaB target genes in the aortic lesions.
4. Nicotine is able to activate mitogenic signalling pathways, which promote cell growth or survival as well as increase chemoresistance of cancer cells, nicotine activates its downstream signalling to interfere with the ubiquitination process and prevent Bcl-2 from being degraded in lung cancer cells, resulting in the increase of chemoresistance.
5. Intramuscular administration of nicotine for 3 weeks can not increase arteriogenesis in ischemic hindlimb of rabbits, but is capable of significantly promoting intramyocardial angiogenesis, it can also accelerate intimal proliferation and thickening of balloon catheter denuding injury iliac artery, so it may contribute to the development of restenosis
1. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage.
2. Synthetic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside at 25 mg/kg b.w., exerts anti hyperglycemic effect by preventing the liver from peroxidation damage through inhibition of ROS level mediated increased level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.
3. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside has renoprotective effects in HFD/STZ-induced DN in rats through correction of hyperglycemia.
(1) Attenuation of oxidative/nitrosative stress markers;
(2) Downregulation of renal expressions of inflammatory markers NF-κB, TNF-α, and iNOS;
(3) Along with upregulation of renal expressions of antiapoptotic markers survivin and Bcl-2;
(4) Maintain tissue function which results in improving the sensitivity and response of target cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats to insulin.
1.Madecassoside protects neuroprotective, stroke damage and D-gal-induced cognitive impairment due to its ability to reduce oxidative damage, improve synaptic plasticity and restore cholinergic function.
2.Madecassoside has anti-arthritis properties not by absorption into blood or by its metabolite, but through an intestine-dependent manner.
1. Beta-Sitosterol has anti-hypercholesterolaemic,antioxidant,estrogenic, hypolipidaemic,antibacterial and antifungal effects.
2. Beta-Sitosterol inhibits growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells by activating the sphingomyelin cycle.
1. Cornin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VEGF signaling axis.
2. Cornin has protective potential against cerebral ischemia injury and its protective effects may be due to amelioration of cerebral mitochondrial function and its antioxidant property.