Agnuside has anti-arthritic activity, it also shows inhibition of vascular permeability and leukocyte migration in vivo.It inhibited an array of pro-inflammatory mediators (PGE(2) and LTB(4)) and T-cell-mediated cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17).
Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
D-glucosamine hydrochloride has antimicrobial effect on the common 21 strains of food spoilage microorganisms, it could as preservative agent was used to preserve nature eleo juice. D-glucosamine hydrochloride also has antitumor, antiinflammaty, and anti-arthritis effects, it induces cell apoptosis by blocking of cell-cycle.
4-Methoxy-5- hydroxycanthin-6-one has anti-inflammatory effect, it can significantly inhibit the production of NO and the release of TNF-α induced by LPS in macrophage RAW 264.7, it has protective effect on dextran sulfate sodium -induced rat colitis. After oral administration, 4-methoxy-5- hydroxycanthin-6-one (3, 9, and 27 mg/kg) can reduce the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic arthritis in rats. 5-Hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one exhibits significant cytotoxic activity against CNE2 cell line.
Piperine, an inhibitor of human P-glycoprotein and/or CYP3A4, which has antinociceptive, antiarthritic, antidepressant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory , antitumor, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, chemo-protective, and anti-inflammatoryactivities. Administration of piperine appears to reverse preexisting high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, probably by activation of adiponectin-AMPK signalling.