1. Punicalagin is a potential alternative or supplemental agent for prevention of Salmonella infection, has a greater antifungal activity against T. rubrum.
2. Punicalagin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects for cerebral I/R injury in rats.
3. Punicalagin has in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and anti-atherosclerotic activities .
4. Punicalagin can suppress the generation of bleomycin-induced intracellular free radicals, identified as superoxides and hydrogen peroxides, it has protection against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity could be, at least in part, due to its antioxidative potentials.
5. Punicalagin and punicalin have hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats.
6. Punicalagin is a potent immune suppressant, based on its inhibitory action on the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT).
7. Punicalagin has potently inhibiting the activity of fatty acid synthase with half-inhibitory concentration values (IC 50 ) of 4.50μM, FAS has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target for obesity, suggests that it has potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity.
8. Punicalagin can suppress the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, it can inhibit LPS-induced inflammation, and it may be a potential choice for the treatment of inflammation diseases.
9. Punicalagin can reduce the viral cytopathic effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC50) value of 15 ug/ml, suggests that punicalagin has the potential for further development as antiviral agents against enterovirus 71.
glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase activities.
1. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and induction of SHP gene expression, suggests that it has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Na+ influx and channel activity; it also inhibits the 5-HT-induced inward peak current (I5-HT) in dose dependent and reversible manner, the half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of ginsenoside Rg2 is 22.3 +/- 4.6 microM, suggests that it might regulate the 5-HT3A receptors that are expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
3. Ginsenoside Rg2 can reduce LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, in a concentration-dependent manner, it may provide direct vascular benefits with inhibition of leukocyte adhesion into vascular wall thereby providing protection against vascular inflammatory disease.
4. Ginsenoside Rg2 protects cells against UVB-induced genotoxicity by increasing DNA repair, in possible association with modulation of protein levels involved in p53 signaling pathway.
5. Ginsenoside Rg2 improves learning and memory through mechanisms related to anti-apoptosis in MID rats, indicates that it may represent a potential neurorestorative treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults.
6. Ginsenoside Rg2 has protective effects against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells.
1. Taurine, a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes.
2. Taurine can attenuate nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats.
3. Taurine can effectively promote chondrocyte growth and enhance accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes, it is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes, thus, taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.
1. Galangin has anti-proliferation effect on HCC cells.
2. Galangin may as an anti-metastatic medicament in clinical therapy.
3. Galangin may be a potential candidate for the treatment of vitiligo .
4. Galangin has anti-genotoxicity, it acts as a cancer chemopreventive agent candidate.
5. Galangin elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated macrophages via the inhibition of ERK, NF-κB-p65 and proinflammatory gene expression.
6. Galangin can inhibit Topo I activity and reduce the unwinding rate of single stranded DNNA in tumor cells, which plays an important role in induction of A549 and H46 cell apoptosis.
7. Galangin shows significant antiviral activity against HSV-1 and CoxB1, limited activity against reovirus, and no antiviral activity against Ad31.
8. Galangin shows an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with the IC(50) of 120 microM, it could be potential candidates against Alzheimer's disease (AD).
9. Galangin has vasorelaxant effects, it reduces the contractility of rat aortic rings through an endothelium-dependent mechanism, involving NO.
10. Galangin could be a beneficial anti-allergic inflammatory agent, it can down-regulate mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
11. Galangin produces anti-obesity effects in cafeteria diet (CD)-fed rats, this may be mediated through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.
1. (+)-Catechin hydrate has antioxidant activity and is effective in reducing oxidative stress.