Fumaric acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food; also a product of the urea cycle. Fumaric acid is used in systemic and topical treatment of psoriasis. Fumaric acid attenuates the eotaxin-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblasts by suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling.
Koumine shows potent anti-tumor, anxiolytic, antistress, antipsoriatic, and analgesic activities, it also protects against the development of arthritis in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) animal models.Koumine can induce apoptosis of LoVo cells in a time-dependent manner and inhibit the DNA synthesis in LoVo cells, thereby blocking the cell cycle from G1 to S phase.
Indirubin is a potent cyclin-dependent kinases and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of about 5 μM and 0.6 μM. Indirubin has anticancer, anti-inflammatory,antiviral,anti-allergic contact dermatitis effects. Each indirubin derivative acts on the DNA binding of NF-Y and represses the MDR1 gene promoter with tumor cell-type specificity.Indirubin derivatives have a potential to be used as an adjunct to antiviral therapy for the treatment of severe human H5N1 disease.
1. Corytuberine was inhibited only by naloxone and that of bulbocapnine preferentially by yohimbine.