Squalene, a naturally occurring substance found in plants, animals and humans, is a component of some adjuvants that is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response.Squalene shows several pharmacological properties such as hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, and antitoxicant activity. Squalene can significantly suppress colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity strengthens the hypothesis that squalene possesses chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis.
Sweroside possesses wound healing, cytoprotective, skin-whitening , anti-osteoporotic , and hepatoprotective effect. It can inhibit potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300uM without cytotoxicity, also decreases tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells. It also shows insulin-mimicking effects on the regulation of Pck1 expression.
Fraxin possesses a variety of bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-hyperuricemia and diuresis. Fraxin enhances urate excretion partly by inhibiting mURAT1 or mGLUT9 in kidney of hyperuricemic mice.
Morin, a α-glucosidase inhibitor with an IC50 value of (4.48 ± 0.04) uM, it also exhibits inhibition in the generation of advanced glycation end products which was related to the long term complications of diabetes. Morin has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects by activating Nrf2 signal pathways and inhibiting NF-κB activation. it can be used to prevent bladder cancer, it prevents MMP-9 expression via the inhibition of transcription factors AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB.
Bilirubin is a tetrapyrrole and a breakdown product of heme catabolism, it is a prominent endogenous antioxidant cytoprotectant and a natural inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, which has neuroprotective and anti- atherosclerosis-related diseases effects. It can act as an effective agent to reduce mortality and counteract hypotension elicited by endotoxin through mechanisms involving a decreased NOS2 induction secondary to inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase.