1. Squalene can significantly suppress colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity strengthens the hypothesis that squalene possesses chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis.
2. Squalene is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and has been proposed to inhibit the farnesylation of ras oncoproteins, it can effectively inhibit NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis.
3. Squalene has cardioprotective effect, it exerts an antioxidant effect against isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction by blocking the induction of lipid peroxidation, suggests that its cardioprotective effect may be ascribable to its antioxidant property and membrane stabilizing action.
4. Squalene may be efficacious as a cytoprotectant in cyclophosphamide-induced toxicities.
1. Sweroside possesses strong hepatoprotective effect.
2. Sweroside is a promising osteoporosis therapeutic natural product, has anti-osteoporotic effect on the human MG-63 cells and rat osteoblasts.
3. Sweroside and swertiamarine may have wound healing activity, they also have cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian.
4. Sweroside can inhibit potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300uM without cytotoxicity, also decreases tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells, it may be an effective skin-whitening agent through the regulates the expression of MAP kinase and melanogenic enzymes.
5. Sweroside and gentiopicroside suppress Pck1 expression and induce phosphorylation of components in the insulin signalling cascade, demonstrates that they show insulin-mimicking effects on the regulation of Pck1 expression.
1. Fraxin shows free radical scavenging effect at high concentration (0.5 mM) and cell protective effect against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress; it can recovere viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) damaged by H2O2-treatment and can reduce the lipid peroxidation and the internal reactive oxygen species level elevated by H2O2 treatment.
2. Fraxin enhances urate excretion partly by inhibiting mURAT1 or mGLUT9 in kidney of hyperuricemic mice.
1. Morin is a safe and novel pharmaceutical adjuvant as P-gp inhibitor.
2. Morin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis through extrinsic pathway by upregulating Fas receptor as well as through the intrinsic pathway by modulating Bcl-2 and IAP family members, and ROS generation.
1. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant.
2. Bilirubin may compromise cellular metabolism and proliferation via induction of ER stress.