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    Squalene
    Information
    CAS No. 111-02-4 Price $30 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99208Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight410.7 Type of CompoundTriterpenoids
    FormulaC30H50Physical DescriptionOil
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Squalene, a naturally occurring substance found in plants, animals and humans, is a component of some adjuvants that is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response.Squalene shows several pharmacological properties such as hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, and antitoxicant activity. Squalene can significantly suppress colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity strengthens the hypothesis that squalene possesses chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis.
    Targets: COX | STAT | FOXP3 | Nrf2 | SOD | GPx
    In vivo:
    Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Feb;59(2):284-92.
    Dietary squalene supplementation improves DSS-induced acute colitis by downregulating p38 MAPK and NFkB signaling pathways.[Pubmed: 25387687]
    Squalene is a polyunsaturated triterpene, which has exhibited anticancer and antioxidant activities among others. We investigated dietary Squalene supplementation effect on an acute colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Mice were fed from weaning with Squalene at 0.02% and 0.1%. After 4 weeks, mice were exposed to 3% DSS for 5 days developing acute colitis. After DSS removal (5 days), colons were histological and biochemically processed. Our results showed that dietary Squalene treatment exerts anti-inflammatory action in DSS-induced acute colitis. Western blot revealed that Squalene downregulated COX-2 (where COX is cyclooxygenase) and inducible nitric oxide synthase system by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, preventing an increase in the cytokines levels. Under our experimental conditions, STAT3 and FOXP3 (where FOXP3 is forkhead box P3) were not modified and the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and/or detoxifying enzymes, Nrf2 (where Nrf2 is nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2), was reduced in DSS-induced colitis. However, any change could be observed after Squalene supplementation.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Squalene was able to improve the oxidative events and returned proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways. However, supplementary studies are needed in order to provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy.
    Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Feb;364(1-2):335-42.
    Effect of squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity.[Pubmed: 16150433]
    Toxicity due to drugs used for neoplastic disorders is extensively documented. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, which could cause toxicity of normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. We evaluated the protective role of Squalene (SQ) in the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    The activities of serum marker enzymes, clinical chemistry parameters and histopathology studies were done according to the standard procedures in the control and experimental groups of rats. Toxicity of the organs like heart, kidney and liver was evidenced from significant (P<0.05) increases of CK, LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, urea, creatinine and total bilirubin in cyclophosphamide- (150 mg/kg for 2 days) administered rats. Abnormal activities of these enzymes in the organs and serum total protein and cholesterol were also observed. No significant changes were observed in triglycerides in serum. Squalene oral treatment exerted protection towards these organs at a dose of 0.4 ml/day/rat. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective efficacy of Squalene.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Squalene may be efficacious as a cytoprotectant in cyclophosphamide-induced toxicities.
    Squalene Description
    Source: The herbs of Catharanthus roseus
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Recently, ChemFaces products have been cited in many studies from excellent and top scientific journals

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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 2.4349 mL 12.1743 mL 24.3487 mL 48.6973 mL 60.8717 mL
    5 mM 0.487 mL 2.4349 mL 4.8697 mL 9.7395 mL 12.1743 mL
    10 mM 0.2435 mL 1.2174 mL 2.4349 mL 4.8697 mL 6.0872 mL
    50 mM 0.0487 mL 0.2435 mL 0.487 mL 0.9739 mL 1.2174 mL
    100 mM 0.0243 mL 0.1217 mL 0.2435 mL 0.487 mL 0.6087 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Animal Research:
    Carcinogenesis. 1998 Feb;19(2):287-90.
    Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer.[Pubmed: 9498278]
    Epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest a cancer protective effect and/or lack of a tumor promoting effect by dietary olive oil as compared with other types of non-marine oils. Squalene, a constituent of olive oil, and a key intermediate in cholesterol synthesis may be regarded as partially responsible for the beneficial effects of olive oil, which include decreased mortality rates among populations with high olive oil consumption.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Thus, in this study we have assessed the chemopreventive efficacy of Squalene on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In addition, we measured the effect of Squalene on serum cholesterol levels in the rats. Male F34 rats (5 weeks old) were fed the control diet (modified AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing 1% Squalene or 320 p.p.m. sulindac. Two weeks later, all animals except those in vehicle (normal saline)-treated groups were s.c. injected with AOM (15 mg/kg body wt, once weekly for 2 weeks). At 16 weeks of age, all rats were killed, colons were evaluated for ACF and serum was assayed for the cholesterol levels. As expected, dietary administration of sulindac suppressed ACF development and reduced crypt multiplicity, i.e. number of aberrant crypts/focus. Administration of dietary Squalene inhibited total ACF induction and crypt multiplicity by approximately >46% (P < 0.001). Further, Squalene at a level of 1% did not show any significant effect on serum cholesterol levels.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Our finding that Squalene significantly suppresses colonic ACF formation and crypt multiplicity strengthens the hypothesis that Squalene possesses chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis.
    Pharmacol Res. 2004 Sep;50(3):231-6.
    Effect of squalene on tissue defense system in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.[Pubmed: 15225664 ]
    This study was designed to examine the effects of Squalene on tissue antioxidant status in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Levels of diagnostic marker enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK)] in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and the activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)] and antiperoxidative enzymes [catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] in the heart tissue of experimental groups of rats were determined. The prior administration of Squalene at 2% level along with feed for 45 days significantly prevented the isoproterenol-induced elevation in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes in plasma of experimental rats. Squalene also exerted an antioxidant effect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction by blocking the induction of lipid peroxidation. A tendency to prevent the isoproterenol-induced alterations in the level of reduced glutathione and in the activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The cardioprotective effect of Squalene might be ascribable to its antioxidant property and membrane stabilizing action.