Naringin exhibits antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, antiulcer, anti-hypocholesterolemic, anti-lipoperoxidative, and anti-hyperglycemia effects. Naringin reduces Ara-C-induced oxidative stress through both an inhibition of the generation of ROS production and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, it blocks apoptosis caused by Ara-C-induced oxidative stress, resulting in the inhibition of the cytotoxicity of Ara-C. Naringin attenuates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs-AP-1 and IKKs-IκB-NF-κB signaling pathways.
Ginsenoside Rg2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients, it also may represent a potential neurorestorative treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults, has protective effects against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and induction of SHP gene expression, regulates the 5-HT3A receptors that are expressed in Xenopus oocytes, inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Na+ influx and channel activity.
Isoferulic acid is an effective natural antioxidant in both lipid and aqueous media, it may be a new promising anti-glycation agent for the prevention of diabetic complications via inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation and oxidation-dependent protein damage. Isoferulic acid is a novel and potent inhibitor of murine IL-8 production, it also has inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase.
Ginsenoside Rg2 may have a therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients, it suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3βand induction of SHP gene expression .Ginsenoside Rg2 can protect H9c2 cells against H2O2- induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.20R-Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits the cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α)-induced reduction in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC).
Marein shows neuroprotective effect on PC12 cell damage induced by methylglyoxal, which is due to a reduction of damage to mitochondria function and activation of the AMPK signal pathway, it may be a potent compound for preventing/counteracting diabetic encephalopathy. Marein can improve insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake, through IRS/Akt/GSK-3β to increase glycogen synthesis, and through Akt/FoxO1 to decrease gluconeogenesis. Marein shows antioxidant activity, it shows Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) inhibitory activity and it also can inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation.