Artemether is a novel sonosensitizer,which has neurotoxicity, anti-schistosomiasis, anticancer and antitumor activities. It is an antimalarial for the treatment of resistant strains of falciparum malaria.
(+)-Bicuculline is a competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors with IC50 of 2 μM, also blocks Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels.It is effective in vitro against spore germination of some plant pathogenic fungi, it can significantly inhibit spore germination of all the fungi at concentrations of 100-1000 ppm.
1. Tutin in honey, is a plant-derived neurotoxin.
Corticosterone, the major stress hormone, is an adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid, it is cytotoxic toward neurons, and the cytotoxic effect could be protected by Yokukansan. A delayed effect of elevated Corticosterone on breeding success rather than an immediate suppression of prolactin concentrations causing premature failure.
Rotenone is a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that produces an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Rotenone-induced α-synuclein aggregation is mediated by the calcium/GSK3β signaling pathway. Rotenone can increase intracellular levels of the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPAL), via decreasing DOPAL metabolism by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and decreasing vesicular sequestration of cytoplasmic dopamine by the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT).