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    1-Deoxynojirimycin
    Information
    CAS No. 19130-96-2 Price $80 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99933Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight163.17Type of CompoundMiscellaneous
    FormulaC6H13NO4Physical DescriptionPowder
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: 1-Deoxynojirimycin is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, suppresses postprandial blood glucose, thereby possibly preventing diabetes mellitus. 1-Deoxynojirimycin as a therapeutic agent by controlling the overgrowth and biofilm formation of S. mutans, it also can block human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein- mediated membrane fusion at the CXCR4 binding step.
    Targets: CXCR | HIV
    In vitro:
    J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jul 11;55(14):5869-74.
    Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans.[Pubmed: 17555327 ]
    Mulberry 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ contents in commercial mulberry products were as low as about 0.1% (100 mg/100 g of dry product), implying that the bioavailability of DNJ might not be expected.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    We carried out studies in two directions: (1) production of food-grade mulberry powder containing a maximally high DNJ content; (2) determination of the optimal dose of the DNJ-enriched powder for the suppression of the postprandial blood glucose through clinical trials. The following method was used: (1) DNJ concentrations in mulberry leaves from different cultivars, harvest seasons, and leaf locations were determined using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. (2) Healthy volunteers received 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder (corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg of DNJ, respectively), followed by 50 g of sucrose. Before and 30-180 min after the DNJ/sucrose administration, plasma glucose and insulin were determined. The following results were obtained: (1) Young mulberry leaves taken from the top part of the branches in summer contained the highest amount of DNJ. After optimization of the harvesting and drying processes for young mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. var. Shin ichinose), DNJ-enriched powder (1.5%) was produced. (2) A human study indicated that the single oral administration of 0.8 and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder significantly suppressed the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin, revealing the physiological impact of mulberry DNJ (effective dose and efficacy in humans).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    This study suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Oct;62(4):751-7.
    Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba.[Pubmed: 18565974 ]
    The present study focused on isolation, characterization and evaluation of purified compounds from Morus alba against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    The effect of crude extract from M. alba leaves was evaluated against oral pathogens, chiefly S. mutans. MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The compound was purified by employing silica gel chromatography and critically analysed with GC-MS, NMR and IR spectroscopy. The S. mutans traits of adherence and biofilm formation were assessed at sub-MIC concentrations of the crude extract and purified compound. Both water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide were estimated to determine the effect of the purified compound on the extracellular polysaccharide secretion of S. mutans. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal microscopy. The purified compound of M. alba showed an 8-fold greater reduction of MIC against S. mutans than the crude extract (MICs, 15.6 and 125 mg/L, respectively). The extract strongly inhibited biofilm formation of S. mutans at its active accumulation and plateau phases. The purified compound led to a 22% greater reduction in alkali-soluble polysaccharide than in water-soluble polysaccharide. The purified compound was found to be 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Confocal microscopy revealed that DNJ distorts the biofilm architecture of S. mutans.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The whole study reflects a prospective role of DNJ as a therapeutic agent by controlling the overgrowth and biofilm formation of S. mutans.
    1-Deoxynojirimycin Description
    Source: The root barks of Morus alba L.
    Solvent: DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 6.1286 mL 30.6429 mL 61.2858 mL 122.5716 mL 153.2144 mL
    5 mM 1.2257 mL 6.1286 mL 12.2572 mL 24.5143 mL 30.6429 mL
    10 mM 0.6129 mL 3.0643 mL 6.1286 mL 12.2572 mL 15.3214 mL
    50 mM 0.1226 mL 0.6129 mL 1.2257 mL 2.4514 mL 3.0643 mL
    100 mM 0.0613 mL 0.3064 mL 0.6129 mL 1.2257 mL 1.5321 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Kinase Assay:
    J Biol Chem. 1983 Oct 25;258(20):12203-9.
    1-deoxynojirimycin impairs oligosaccharide processing of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and inhibits its secretion in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.[Pubmed: 6226656]
    1-Deoxynojirimycin was found to inhibit oligosaccharide processing of rat alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    In normal hepatocytes alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was present in the cells as a 49,000 Mr high mannose type glycoprotein with oligosaccharide side chains having the composition Man9GlcNAc and Man8GlcNAc with the former in a higher proportion. Hepatocytes treated with 5 mM 1-Deoxynojirimycin accumulated alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor as a 51,000 Mr glycoprotein with carbohydrate side chains of the high mannose type, containing glucose as measured by their sensitivity against alpha-glucosidase, the largest species being Glc3Man9GlcNAc. Conversion to complex oligosaccharides was inhibited by the drug. In addition, increasing concentrations of 1-Deoxynojirimycin inhibited glycosylation resulting in the formation of some alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor with two instead of three oligosaccharide side chains. 5 mM 1-Deoxynojirimycin inhibited the secretion of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by about 50%, whereas secretion of albumin was unaffected. The oligosaccharides of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor secreted from 1-Deoxynojirimycin-treated cells were characterized by their susceptibility to endoglucosaminidase H, incorporation of [3H]galactose, and [3H]fucose and concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography. It was found that 1-Deoxynojirimycin did not completely block oligosaccharide processing, resulting in the formation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor molecules carrying one or two complex type oligosaccharides. Only these alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor molecules processed to the complex type in one or two of their oligosaccharide chains were nearly exclusively secreted.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    This finding demonstrates the importance of oligosaccharide processing for the secretion of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor.
    Structure Identification:
    Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;61(1):186-93.
    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin blocks human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion at the CXCR4 binding step.[Pubmed: 11752220]
    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNM) is a saccharide decoy that inhibits cellular alpha-glucosidase I-II activity. Treatment by DNM of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected lymphocyte cultures inhibits virus spread. The functional properties of the membrane-associated Env glycoprotein (Env) modified in the presence of DNM remain unclear because previous reports on this subject have essentially used recombinant soluble Envs whose properties differ notably from those of Env anchored on the surface of the virus.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    To model virus-associated Env synthesized in the presence of DNM, native Env was expressed at the surface of mammalian cells treated with DNM. As expected, its glycosylation pattern was altered in the presence of the inhibitor. Env was found able to bind CD4, whereas its ability to induce membrane fusion was abolished. The immunoreactivity of regions involved in interactions of Env with CXCR4 (V1, V2, C2, and V3) was modified and Env displayed altered interaction with this coreceptor. These results are consistent with the inhibition by DNM of virus entry at the Env/coreceptor interaction step. Finally, preliminary data indicate that suboptimal concentrations of DNM and natural or synthetic CXCR4 ligands used in combination potently inhibit the Env-mediated membrane fusion process.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Altogether, our results suggest that DNM and its analogs deserve further investigation as anti-HIV agents in combination with experimental compounds targeting CXCR4 to inhibit each partner of this crucial step of HIV entry.