||Arctigenin has anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidative , neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement effects; it efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.
Arctigenin as a potent indirect activator of AMPK via inhibition of respiratory complex I, with beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in ob/ob mice, this highlights the potential value of arctigenin as a possible treatment of type 2 diabetes. |
|Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1751-7. |
|Identification of arctigenin as an antitumor agent having the ability to eliminate the tolerance of cancer cells to nutrient starvation.[Pubmed: 16452235]|
|Tumor cells generally proliferate rapidly and the demand for essential nutrients as well as oxygen always exceeds the supply due to the unregulated growth and the insufficient and inappropriate vascular supply. However, cancer cells show an inherent ability to tolerate extreme conditions, such as that characterized by low nutrient and oxygen supply, by modulating their energy metabolism. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Thus, targeting nutrient-deprived cancer cells may be a novel strategy in anticancer drug development. Based on that, we established a novel screening method to discover anticancer agents that preferentially inhibit cancer cell viability under the nutrient-deprived condition. After screening 500 medicinal plant extracts used in Japanese Kampo medicine, we found that a CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble extract of Arctium lappa exhibited 100% preferential cytotoxicity under the nutrient-deprived condition at a concentration of 50 microg/mL with virtually no cytotoxicity under nutrient-rich condition. Further bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation led to the isolation of Arctigenin as the primary compound responsible for such preferential cytotoxicity; the compound exhibited 100% preferential cytotoxicity against nutrient-deprived cells at a concentration of 0.01 microg/mL. Furthermore, Arctigenin was also found to strongly suppress the PANC-1 tumor growth in nude mice, as well as the growth of several of the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines, suggesting the feasibility of this novel antiausterity approach in cancer therapy.
Further investigation of the mechanism of action of Arctigenin revealed that the compound blocked the activation of Akt induced by glucose starvation, which is a key process in the tolerance exhibited by cancer cells to glucose starvation.
|Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014 Oct;35(10):1274-84. |
|Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.[Pubmed: 25152028]|
|Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of Arctigenin in rats.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with Arctigenin (15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting.
Incubation of L6 cells with Arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of Arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that Arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus.
Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.
|Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Dec;23(2):505-15. |
|Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.[Pubmed: 25284342]|
|The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of Arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that Arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of Arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity.
In conclusion, Arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.
|Diabetologia. 2012 May;55(5):1469-81. |
|Arctigenin, a natural compound, activates AMP-activated protein kinase via inhibition of mitochondria complex I and ameliorates metabolic disorders in ob/ob mice.[Pubmed: 22095235 ]|
|Arctigenin is a natural compound that had never been previously demonstrated to have a glucose-lowering effect. Here it was found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the mechanism by which this occurred, as well as the effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
2-Deoxyglucose uptake and AMPK phosphorylation were examined in L6 myotubes and isolated skeletal muscle. Gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis were evaluated in rat primary hepatocytes. The acute and chronic effects of Arctigenin on metabolic abnormalities were observed in C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using the J-aggregate-forming dye, JC-1. Analysis of respiration of L6 myotubes or isolated mitochondria was conducted in a channel oxygen system.
Arctigenin increased AMPK phosphorylation and stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and isolated skeletal muscles. In primary hepatocytes, it decreased gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis. The enhancement of glucose uptake and suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis by Arctigenin were prevented by blockade of AMPK activation. The respiration of L6 myotubes or isolated mitochondria was inhibited by Arctigenin with a specific effect on respiratory complex I. A single oral dose of Arctigenin reduced gluconeogenesis in C57BL/6J mice. Chronic oral administration of Arctigenin lowered blood glucose and improved lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice.
This study demonstrates a new role for Arctigenin as a potent indirect activator of AMPK via inhibition of respiratory complex I, with beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in ob/ob mice. This highlights the potential value of Arctigenin as a possible treatment of type 2 diabetes.