||Bullatine A possesses anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects, may be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as arthritis. Bullatine A produces antinociception without induction of tolerance and inhibits morphine antinociceptive tolerance, and provide pharmacological basis for concurrent bullatine A and morphine treatment for chronic pain and morphine analgesic tolerance. |
||NOS | IL Receptor | NO | P2X receptor|
| Brain Res Bull. 2013 Aug;97:81-5. |
|Bullatine A, a diterpenoid alkaloid of the genus Aconitum, could attenuate ATP-induced BV-2 microglia death/apoptosis via P2X receptor pathways.[Pubmed: 23769848 ]|
|Bullatine A (BLA), a diterpenoid alkaloid of the genus Aconitum, possesses anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. The mechanism underlying the effects was examined in the present study.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The effect of BLA on extracellular ATP induced cell death/apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines release were investigated using BV-2 microglia cell line. The mediation/efficacy of inflammatory cytokines and P2X receptors was evaluated by detecting the mRNA levels of iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β and P2X receptors, respectively. The results demonstrated that BV-2 cells could be damaged after incubation with higher dose of ATP, leading to activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, transcriptional activation of iNOS and overproduction of NO via activation of P2X receptor. The BLA (1-50μM) potently inhibits ATP-induced BV-2 cell death/apoptosis and P2X receptor-mediated inflammatory responses via selectively suppressing the up-regulation of P2X7 receptor mRNA.
Since P2X7 receptors have an important role in immune and pain response, inflammation and inflammatory disease, this discovery of BLA as a potent P2X7 antagonist indicated that BLA may be a potential useful candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as arthritis.
|Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Mar;33(5):513-6. |
|Effects of volatile oil of Rhizoma zingiberis and other two kinds of volatile oil on percutaneous penetration of bullatine A via hairless mouse skin in vitro[Pubmed: 18536371]|
|To investigate the effects of volatile oils of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (RAT), Semen Myristicae (SM) and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) on percutaneous penetration of Bullatine A via hairless mouse skin in vitro.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
By an improved Franz diffusion, the effects of three kinds of volatile oils on the percutaneous penetration of Bullatine A were observed and compared with Azone, and the cumulative amount of Bullatine A was determined by HPLC.
The penetration enhancement ratios of Bullatine A with 7% volatile oil RAT and SM, 5% volatile oil of PCR and 3% Azone were 6.52, 6.74, 2.18, 6.03, respectively.
The volatile oil of RAT, SM and PCR enhance permeation of Bullatine A, effectively.
|J Neuroinflammation. 2016 Aug 30;13(1):214. |
|Bullatine A stimulates spinal microglial dynorphin A expression to produce anti-hypersensitivity in a variety of rat pain models.[Pubmed: 27577933]|
|Aconiti brachypodi Radix (Xue-shang-yi-zhi-hao) has been prescribed to manage chronic pain, arthritis, and traumatic injuries. Bullatine A, a C20-diterpenoid alkaloid, is one of its principle effective compounds. This study aimed to investigate the anti-hypersensitivity of Bullatine A in a variety of rat pain models and explore its mechanisms of action.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rat neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, diabetic neuropathic pain, and bone cancer pain models were used. Dynorphin A and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in the spinal cord and cultured primary microglia. Double immunofluorescence staining of dynorphin A and glial and neuronal cellular markers was also measured in the spinal cord.
Subcutaneous and intrathecal injection of Bullatine A dose-dependently attenuated spinal nerve ligation-, complete Freud's adjuvant-, diabetes-, and bone cancer-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, with the efficacies of 45-70 % inhibition, and half-effective doses of 0.9-1.9 mg/kg for subcutaneous injection. However, Bullatine A was not effective in blocking acute nociceptive response in the normal condition. Bullatine A specifically stimulated dynorphin A expression in microglia in the spinal cord in vivo and cultured primary microglia in vitro; the stimulatory effects were completely inhibited by the microglial inhibitor minocycline. In contrast, Bullatine A did not have an inhibitory effect on peripheral nerve injury- or lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. The spinal anti-allodynic effects of Bullatine A were entirely blocked by intrathecal injection of minocycline, the specific dynorphin A antiserum, and the selective k-opioid receptor antagonist.
We, for the first time, demonstrate that Bullatine A specifically attenuates pain hypersensitivity, regardless of the pain models employed. The results also suggest that stimulation of spinal microglial dynorphin A expression mediates Bullatine A anti-nociception in pain hypersensitivity conditions.