|Source:||The herbs of Coptis groenlandica|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Groenlandicine has bitter, and also has antibacterial activity on E. coli and S. aureus,
there was close relationship between the bitter degree and antibacterial activity of bitter components.
2. Groenlandicine may be a promising anti-Alzheimer's disease agent due to its potent inhibitory activity of both ChEs and beta-amyloids formation, as well as marked ONOO(-) scavenging and good ROS inhibitory capacities.
3. Groenlandicine exhibits moderate inhibitory effects with the IC(50) value of 140.1 microM for rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and 154.2 microM for human recombinant AR (HRAR), it has beneficial uses in the development of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications and diabetes mellitus.
4. Groenlandicine is a active principle with topoisomerase I-mediated DNA cleavage activity in vitro.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||3.1046 mL||15.5231 mL||31.0463 mL||62.0925 mL||77.6156 mL|
|5 mM||0.6209 mL||3.1046 mL||6.2093 mL||12.4185 mL||15.5231 mL|
|10 mM||0.3105 mL||1.5523 mL||3.1046 mL||6.2093 mL||7.7616 mL|
|50 mM||0.0621 mL||0.3105 mL||0.6209 mL||1.2419 mL||1.5523 mL|
|100 mM||0.031 mL||0.1552 mL||0.3105 mL||0.6209 mL||0.7762 mL|
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Sep;39(17):3326-9.
|Research on bitter components from Coptis chinensis based on electronic tongue.[Pubmed: 25522621]|
|Isolated alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. The compounds were identified as berberine, columbamine, Groenlandicine, jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, corydaldine and ferulic acid methylester. Then measured their bitter degree based on the electronic tongue and evaluated the antibacterial. The results based on the Electronic Tongue showed that berberine, columbamine, Groenlandicine and jatrorrhizine have higher bitter degree than magnoflorine and corydaldine. And they also appeared better antibacterial activity on E. coli and S. aureus. The correlation coefficients between bitter degree and the two bacteria antibacterial activity were 0.983 and 0.911. So there was close relationship between the bitter degree and antibacterial activity of bitter components. Thus, it is confirmed further that bitter components are the material foundation of medicinal effectiveness of bitter herbs.|
Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Aug;32(8):1433-8.
|Anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant activities of Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids.[Pubmed: 19652386]|
|Coptidis Rhizoma and its isolated alkaloids are reported to possess a variety of activities, including neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. Thus, the anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant effects of six protoberberine alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, jateorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, and Groenlandicine) and one aporphine alkaloid (magnoflorine) from Coptidis Rhizoma were evaluated via beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) assays, along with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitory assays. Six protoberberine alkaloids exhibited predominant cholinesterases (ChEs) inhibitory effects with IC(50) values ranging between 0.44-1.07 microM for AChE and 3.32-6.84 microM for BChE; only epiberberine (K(i)=10.0) and Groenlandicine (K(i)=21.2) exerted good, non-competitive BACE1 inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 8.55 and 19.68 microM, respectively. In two antioxidant assays, jateorrhizine and Groenlandicine exhibited significant ONOO(-) scavenging activities with IC(50) values of 0.78 and 0.84 microM, respectively; coptisine and Groenlandicine exhibited moderate total ROS inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 48.93 and 51.78 microM, respectively. These results indicate that Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids have a strong potential of inhibition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mainly through both ChEs and beta-amyloids pathways, and additionally through antioxidant capacities. In particular, Groenlandicine may be a promising anti-AD agent due to its potent inhibitory activity of both ChEs and beta-amyloids formation, as well as marked ONOO(-) scavenging and good ROS inhibitory capacities. As a result, Coptidis Rhizoma and the alkaloids contained therein would clearly have beneficial uses in the development of therapeutic and preventive agents for AD and oxidative stress-related disease.|
Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Nov;31(11):1405-12.
|Inhibitory activities of the alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma against aldose reductase.[Pubmed: 19023536]|
|As part of our ongoing search of natural sources for therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, the rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory effect of Coptidis Rhizoma (the rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch) was evaluated. Its extract and fractions exhibited broad and moderate RLAR inhibitory activities of 38.9 approximately 67.5 microg/mL. In an attempt to identify bioactive components, six quaternary protoberberine-type alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, jateorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, and Groenlandicine) and one quaternary aporphine-type alkaloid (magnoflorine) were isolated from the most active n-BuOH fraction, and the chemical structures therein were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The anti-diabetic complications capacities of seven C. chinensis-derived alkaloids were evaluated via RLAR and human recombinant AR (HRAR) inhibitory assays. Although berberine and palmatine were previously reported as prime contributors to AR inhibition, these two major components exhibited no AR inhibitory effects at a higher concentration of 50 microg/ml in the present study. Conversely, epiberberine, coptisine, and Groenlandicine exhibited moderate inhibitory effects with IC(50) values of 100.1, 118.4, 140.1 microM for RLAR and 168.1, 187.3, 154.2 microM for HRAR. The results clearly indicated that the presence of the dioxymethylene group in the D ring and the oxidized form of the dioxymethylene group in the A ring were partly responsible for the AR inhibitory activities of protoberberine-type alkaloids. Therefore, Coptidis Rhizoma, and the alkaloids contained therein, would clearly have beneficial uses in the development of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications and diabetes mellitus.|
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;57(3):367-74.
|Protective role of Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids against peroxynitrite-induced damage to renal tubular epithelial cells.[Pubmed: 15807993 ]|
|A study was conducted to elucidate and compare the protective activity of alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma (berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorhizine, Groenlandicine and magnoflorine) using an LLC-PK(1) cell under peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generation model. Treatment with 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) led to an increase in cellular ONOO(-) generation in comparison with non-treated cells. However, Coptidis Rhizoma extract and its alkaloids, except for berberine, reduced the cellular ONOO(-) level. In addition, DNA fragmentation induced by SIN-1 was significantly decreased by the extract, and also by coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorhizine, Groenlandicine and magnoflorine. Moreover, treatment with berberine, coptisine, palmatine and epiberberine exerted a protective effect against G(0)/G(1)phase arrest of cell cycle induced by SIN-1. The increase in cellular ONOO(-) generation, DNA damage and disturbance of the cell cycle by SIN-1 resulted in a decrease in cell viability. However, Coptidis Rhizoma extract, epiberberine, jatrorhizine, Groenlandicine and magnoflorine significantly increased cell viability even at a concentration as low as 10 microg mL(-1). These findings demonstrate that Coptidis Rhizoma extract and its alkaloids can ameliorate the cell damage associated with ONOO(-) generation in renal tubular LLCPK(1) cells, and that the various alkaloids have distinctive mechanisms of action, such as ONOO(-) scavenging, protection from DNA damage and control of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the data suggest that among the Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids, coptisine is the most effective for protection against SIN-1-induced cellular injury in terms of its potency and content.|