||Kaempferitrin exerts immunostimulatory, antidepressant-like , antiosteoporotic , cytotoxic and antitumor effects, the general mechanisms include cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis via intrinsic pathway in a caspase dependent pathway. Kaempferitrin is an acute lowering effect on blood glucose in diabetic rats and to stimulate the glucose uptake percentile, as efficiently as insulin in muscle from normal rats. |
||PI3K | PKC | MEK | p38MAPK | GLUT | NO | 5-HT Receptor | Akt|
|J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jun 21;148(1):337-40. |
|Kaempferitrin induces immunostimulatory effects in vitro.[Pubmed: 23588095]|
| Justicia spicigera is a plant used as immunostimulatory in Mexican traditional medicine. Recently, we showed that Justicia spicigera extracts exerted immunostimulatory effects and the major component of this extract was Kaempferitrin (KM). This work shows a correlation between the medical traditional use of Justicia spicigera and Kaempferitrin, its active compound. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The in vitro immunostimulatory effects of Kaempferitrin were evaluated on the proliferation of murine splenocytes and macrophages, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The effects of Kaempferitrin on NO production, lysosomal enzyme activity and neutral red uptake were assayed in murine macrophages RAW 264.7. The effects of Kaempferitrin on the NK cell activity were also assayed. Kaempferitrin at 25μM, the highest concentration tested, increased the proliferation of murine macrophages (23%) and splenocytes (17%), and human PBMC (24%) in the absence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), compared to untreated cells. Kaempferitrin also stimulated the pinocytosis (25%) and lysosomal enzyme activity (57%) in murine macrophages with a similar potency than LPS 1μg/ml. In addition, Kaempferitrin induced the NK cell activity (11%).
Kaempferitrin exerts immunostimulatory effects on immune responses mediated by splenocytes, macrophages, PBMC and NK cells.
|J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jan 30;145(2):476-89. |
|Kaempferitrin induces apoptosis via intrinsic pathway in HeLa cells and exerts antitumor effects.[Pubmed: 23211658]|
| Justicia spicigera is used for the empirical treatment of cervical cancer in Mexico. Recently, we showed that Justicia spicigera extracts exerted cytotoxic and antitumoral effects and the major component of this extract was Kaempferitrin (KM). |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of Kaempferitrin on human cancer cells and human nontumorigenic cells were evaluated using MTT and TUNEL assays, and Annexin V/Propidium iodide detection by flow cytometry. The effect of Kaempferitrin on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide. The apoptotic and cell cycle effects were also evaluated by western blot analysis. Also, different doses of Kaempferitrin were injected intraperitoneally daily into athymic mice bearing tumors of HeLa cells during 32 days. The growth and weight of tumors were measured. RESULTS: Kaempferitrin induces high cytotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo against HeLa cells. The general mechanisms by which Kaempferitrin induces cytotoxic effects include: cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis via intrinsic pathway in a caspase dependent pathway. Also, Kaempferitrin exerts chemopreventive and antitumor effects.
Kaempferitrin exerts cytotoxic and antitumor effects against HeLa cells.
|Chem Biol Interact. 2004 Oct 15;149(2-3):89-96. |
|Insulinomimetic effects of kaempferitrin on glycaemia and on 14C-glucose uptake in rat soleus muscle.[Pubmed: 15501431]|
|Bauhinia forficata is one of the Bauhinia species mostly used as an antidiabetic herbal remedy in Brazil. Kaempferitrin (kaempferol-3,7-O-(alpha)-L-dirhamnoside) is the predominant flavonol glycoside found in the B. forficata leaves. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The aim of the present work was to study the long-term effect of Kaempferitrin on glycaemia in diabetic rats, as well as the in vitro effect of this compound on 14C-D-glucose uptake and 14C-leucine incorporation into protein in normal rat soleus muscle. Kaempferitrin was found to have an acute lowering effect on blood glucose in diabetic rats and to stimulate the glucose uptake percentile, as efficiently as insulin in muscle from normal rats. This compound did not have any effect on glucosuria or on protein synthesis in muscle from normal and diabetic animals. However, the protein synthesis in the Kaempferitrin-treated groups was maintained at the same level as the respective controls.
Thus, the hypoglycaemic effect and the prompt efficiency of the Kaempferitrin in stimulating [U-14C]-2-deoxi-D-glucose uptake in muscle -constitute the first evidence to indicate that the acute effect of this compound on blood glucose lowering may occur as a consequence of the altered intrinsic activity of the glucose transporter (Vmax or glucose transporters translocation?) not involving directly the synthesis of new carriers.
|IUBMB Life. 2014 May;66(5):361-70. |
|Antidiabetic activity of Sedum dendroideum: metabolic enzymes as putative targets for the bioactive flavonoid kaempferitrin.[Pubmed: 24817132]|
|The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of a leaf extract and flavonoids from Sedum dendroideum (SD). Additionally, our goals were to establish a possible structure/activity relationship between these flavonoids and to assess the most active flavonoid on the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK). SD juice (LJ), a flavonoid-rich fraction (BF), and separately five flavonoids were evaluated intraperitoneally for their acute hypoglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
First, the major flavonoids kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside or Kaempferitrin (1), kaempferol 3-glucoside-7-rhamnoside (2), and kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside-7-rhamnoside (3) were tested. Then, the monoglycosides kaempferol 7-rhamnoside (5) and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside (6) were assayed to establish their structure/activity relationship. The effect of 1 on PFK was evaluated in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue from treated mice. LJ (400 mg/kg), BF (40 mg/kg), and flavonoid 1 (4 mg/kg) reduced glycemia in diabetic mice (120 min) by 52, 53, and 61%, respectively. Flavonoids 2, 3, 5, and 6 were inactive or showed little activity, suggesting that the two rhamnosyl moieties in Kaempferitrin are important requirements. Kaempferitrin enhanced the PFK activity chiefly in hepatic tissue, suggesting that it is able to stimulate tissue glucose utilization. This result is confirmed testing Kaempferitrin on C2C12 cell line, where it enhanced glucose consumption, lactate production, and the key regulatory glycolytic enzymes. The hypoglycemic activity of Kaempferitrin depends on the presence of both rhamnosyl residues in the flavonoid structure when intraperitoneally administered.
Our findings show for the first time that a flavonoid is capable of stimulating PFK in a model of diabetes and that Kaempferitrin stimulates glucose-metabolizing enzymes. This study contributes to the knowledge of the mechanisms by which this flavonoid exerts its hypoglycemic activity.