|Source:||The root of Morinda officinalis How.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Monotropein has anti-inflammatory activity, it exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.
2. Monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root, monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) can significantly reduce stretching episodes and prolong action time in mice, it also can significantly reduce acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats.
3. Monotropein can increase osteoblastic bone formation and prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice, it may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for antiosteoporosis.
|Solvent:||DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.5619 mL||12.8093 mL||25.6187 mL||51.2374 mL||64.0467 mL|
|5 mM||0.5124 mL||2.5619 mL||5.1237 mL||10.2475 mL||12.8093 mL|
|10 mM||0.2562 mL||1.2809 mL||2.5619 mL||5.1237 mL||6.4047 mL|
|50 mM||0.0512 mL||0.2562 mL||0.5124 mL||1.0247 mL||1.2809 mL|
|100 mM||0.0256 mL||0.1281 mL||0.2562 mL||0.5124 mL||0.6405 mL|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Dec;23(2):575-80.
|Monotropein exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.[Pubmed: 25466264]|
|Osteoarthritis, characterized by a loss of articular cartilage accompanied with inflammation, is the most common age-associated degenerative disease. Monotropein, an iridoids glycoside isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis How, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, Monotropein was firstly to exhibit cartilage protective activity by down regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the knee synovial fluid in vivo. The anti-apoptotic and anti-catabolic effects of Monotropein on rat OA chondrocytes treated by IL-1β were investigated in vitro. In cultured chondrocytes, Monotropein attenuated apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in response to IL-1β stimulation. Moreover, treatment with Monotropein, the expressions of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased, the expression of COL2A1 was increased. Taken together, these findings suggested that Monotropein exerted anti-apoptosis and anti-catabolic activity in chondrocytes, which might support its possible therapeutic role in OA.|
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Mar;53:263-71.
|Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis ameliorates proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis via NF-κB inactivation.[Pubmed: 23261679]|
|In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of Monotropein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Monotropein was found to inhibit the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with Monotropein decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Consistent with these findings, Monotropein also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α), and consequently the translocations of NF-κB. In the DSS-induced colitis model, Monotropein reduced disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and inflammation-related protein expressions by suppressing NF-κB activation in colon mucosa. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of Monotropein are mainly related to the inhibition of the expressions of inflammatory mediators via NF-κB inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic role in colitis.|
Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Oct;28(10):1915-8.
|Antinociceptive anti-inflammatory effect of Monotropein isolated from the root of Morinda officinalis.[Pubmed: 16204945]|
|We adopted an activity-directed fractionation approach. The active fraction of the BuOH extract of M. officinalis root was subjected to silica gel and ODS column chromatography to yield two diterpenes, compounds 1 and 2 and these were identified as Monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid, respectively. The iridoid glycoside, Monotropein, was tested for its anti-inflammatory antinociceptive effects using hot plate- and writhing antinociceptive assays and by using carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory assays in mice and rats. Pretreatment with Monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) significantly reduced stretching episodes and prolonged action time in mice. It also significantly reduced acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats. These results indicate that Monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root.|
Fitoterapia. 2016 Apr;110:166-72.
|Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis increases osteoblastic bone formation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.[Pubmed: 26996879]|
|Monotropein also enhanced the parameters of biomechanical properties, including maximum load, maximum stress and elastic modulus of femur in OVX mice. In addition, Monotropein treatment decreased the serum levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) in OVX mice. In this study, we also assessed the effects of Monotropein on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. After incubation for 48h, the cell proliferation was increased at the concentration of 10 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM. ALP activities were significantly increased after treatment with Monotropein for 72h. Quantitative analyses with alizarin red staining showed significantly increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with Monotropein for 28 days. Based on these results, Monotropein may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for antiosteoporosis.|