|Source:||From Ostracion lentiginosus|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Pahutoxin is a natural fish-killing (ichthyotoxic) agent derived from the defensive secretions of trunkfish.
2. Pahutoxin is a haemolytic agent.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.4963 mL||12.4813 mL||24.9626 mL||49.9251 mL||62.4064 mL|
|5 mM||0.4993 mL||2.4963 mL||4.9925 mL||9.985 mL||12.4813 mL|
|10 mM||0.2496 mL||1.2481 mL||2.4963 mL||4.9925 mL||6.2406 mL|
|50 mM||0.0499 mL||0.2496 mL||0.4993 mL||0.9985 mL||1.2481 mL|
|100 mM||0.025 mL||0.1248 mL||0.2496 mL||0.4993 mL||0.6241 mL|
Toxicon. 2004 Dec 15;44(8):939-42.
|Endogenous regulation of the functional duality of pahutoxin, a marine trunkfish surfactant.[Pubmed: 15530977]|
|Pahutoxin (PHN) is a long chain detergent-like quaternary ammonium cationic substance derived from defensive skin secretions of trunkfish. A recent study has revealed that Pahutoxin's ichthyotoxicity and its phospholipid membrane disruption effect are produced by two separate mechanisms, which presumably represent two separate physicochemical domains in the Pahutoxin molecule.Here we report on the occurrence of a natural endogenous mechanism, which regulates the above Pahutoxin's functional duality. The regulation is performed by the aid of two separates constituents of the trunkfish secretion, which either selectively amplify Pahutoxin's ichthyotoxicity (factor I) or suppress its phospholipids permeabilization effect (factor II). The ecological significance of such endogenous regulation is discussed.|
Toxicon. 2003 Jul;42(1):63-71.
|Receptor-mediated toxicity of pahutoxin, a marine trunkfish surfactant.[Pubmed: 12893062 ]|
|Pahutoxin (PHN, choline chloride ester of 3-acetoxypalmitic acid) is a natural fish-killing (ichthyotoxic) agent derived from the defensive secretions of trunkfish. In spite of its obvious structural resemblance to synthetic cationic long-chain quaternary ammonium detergents, we show that Pahutoxin's action does not rely on its surfactant properties and is in fact, receptor-mediated.The receptor hypothesis was supported by the aid of equilibrium saturation binding assays revealing the presence of specific binding sites to Pahutoxin on the fish gill membranes; The Pahutoxin tolerant trunkfish was shown to be devoid of Pahutoxin-binding sites. Some chemo-ecological, and environmental implications are discussed.|
|Occurrence of pahutoxin and homopahutoxin in the mucus secretion of the Japanese boxfish.[Pubmed: 3617085]|
|The mucus secreted by the Japanese boxfish O. immaculatus was extracted with n-butanol. The extract was fractionated by silica gel open column chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography to give two hemolytic components. The major hemolysin was identical with Pahutoxin which was previously isolated from the Hawaiian boxfish O. lentiginosus, while the other hemolysin was a new choline chloride ester, named homoPahutoxin.|