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    Sinomenine HCl
    Information
    CAS No. 6080-33-7 Price $40 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99561Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight365.85Type of CompoundAlkaloids
    FormulaC19H23NO4.HClPhysical DescriptionWhite powder
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Sinomenine HCl is a blocker of the NF-κB activation and also an activator of μ-opioid receptor, which has antiarrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective effects. Sinomenine HCl can improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities, it induces breast cancer cell death through ROS-dependent and -independent pathways with an upregulation of MAPKs.
    Targets: ERK | JNK | p38MAPK | ROS | Chk | ATM/ATR | COX | VEGFR
    In vitro:
    Cell Death Dis. 2014 Jul 31;5:e1356.
    MAPK signaling mediates sinomenine hydrochloride-induced human breast cancer cell death via both reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent pathways: an in vitro and in vivo study.[Pubmed: 25077542]
    Sinomenine, the main alkaloid extracted from the medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in synovial sarcoma, lung cancer and hepatic cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    This study investigated the anti-tumor activity of sinomenine hydrochloride (Sinomenine HCl, SH), a hydrochloride form of sinomenine, in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that SH potently inhibited cell viability of a broad panel of breast cancer cell lines. Two representative breast cancer cell lines, namely ER(-)/PR(-) MDA-MB-231 and ER(+)/PR(+) MCF-7, were used for further investigation. The results showed that SH induced G1/S cell cycle arrest, caused apoptosis and induced ATM/Chk2- and ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA-damage response in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. The anti-cancer effect of SH was regulated by increased expression levels of p-ERK, p-JNK and p-38 MAPK. Further studies showed that SH resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) almost blocked SH-induced DNA damage but only mitigated SH-induced MAPK expression changes, suggesting that both ROS-dependent and -independent pathways were involved in MAPK-mediated SH-induced breast cancer cell death. The in vivo study demonstrated that SH effectively inhibited tumor growth without showing significant toxicity.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    In conclusion, SH induced breast cancer cell death through ROS-dependent and -independent pathways with an upregulation of MAPKs, indicating that SH may be a potential anti-tumor drug for breast cancer treatment.
    In vivo:
    Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 1985, 20(11):856-8.
    Anti-arrhythmic effects of sinomenine hydrochloride[Reference: WebLink]

    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Pretreatment of rats with sinomenine(Sinomenine HCl) 10~20 mg/kg iv significantly delayed the appearence and reduced the percentage of arrhythmia induced by aconitine 20 μg/kg iv. This alkaloid given 20 mg/kg iv increased the amount of ouabain required to produce ventricular premature beats and cardiac arrest in guinea pigs. while 20 mg/kg ip significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation induced by chloroform inhalation in mice.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    In aneasthetized rats, sinomenine 20 mg/kg iv reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation and the mortality rate induced by iv CaCl_2 130 mg/kg. It might also abolish the arrhythmia induced by chloroform-adrenaline in rabbits.
    Sinomenine HCl Description
    Source: The herbs of Sinomenium acutum Rehd. Et Wils.
    Solvent: DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 2.7334 mL 13.6668 mL 27.3336 mL 54.6672 mL 68.334 mL
    5 mM 0.5467 mL 2.7334 mL 5.4667 mL 10.9334 mL 13.6668 mL
    10 mM 0.2733 mL 1.3667 mL 2.7334 mL 5.4667 mL 6.8334 mL
    50 mM 0.0547 mL 0.2733 mL 0.5467 mL 1.0933 mL 1.3667 mL
    100 mM 0.0273 mL 0.1367 mL 0.2733 mL 0.5467 mL 0.6833 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Cell Research:
    Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013 Mar;62(3):447-54.
    Sinomenine hydrochloride enhancement of the inhibitory effects of anti-transferrin receptor antibody-dependent on the COX-2 pathway in human hepatoma cells.[Pubmed: 22941037]
    Transferrin receptor (TfR) has been used as a target for the antibody-based therapy of cancer due to its higher expression in tumors relative to normal tissues. Great potential has been shown by anti-TfR antibodies combined with chemotherapeutic drugs as a possible cancer therapeutic strategy.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    In our study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of anti-TfR monoclonal antibody (mAb) alone or in combination with sinomenine hydrochloride in vitro. Results suggested that anti-TfR mAb or sinomenine hydrochloride could induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation, and affect the cell cycle. A synergistic effect was found in relation to tumor growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis when anti-TfR mAb and sinomenine hydrochloride were used simultaneously. The expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in HepG2 cells treated with anti-TfR mAb alone was increased in line with increasing dosage of the agent. In contrast, COX-2 expression was dramatically decreased in HepG2 cells treated with sinomenine hydrochloride alone. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of sinomenine hydrochloride and anti-TfR mAb administered in combination were more prominent than when the agents were administered singly. To sum up, these results showed that the combined use of sinomenine hydrochloride and anti-TfR mAb may exert synergistic inhibitory effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells in a COX-2-dependent manner.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    This finding provides new insight into how tumor cells overcome the interference of iron intake to survive and forms the basis of a new therapeutic strategy involving the development of anti-TfR mAb combined with sinomenine hydrochloride for liver cancer.
    Animal Research:
    Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Jan 23;16(2):2559-73.
    Sinomenine hydrochloride protects against polymicrobial sepsis via autophagy.[Pubmed: 25625512]
    Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN) is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in sepsis remains unclear.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM). 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.