|J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 May 7;141(1):206-11. |
|Effects of taraxasterol on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.[Pubmed: 22366673]|
|Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene, was isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Taraxacum officinale. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxasterol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with 2.5, 5, or 12.5μg/ml of Taraxasterol 1h prior to treatment with 1μg/ml of LPS. Nitric oxide (NO) level in supernatants from cells was examined by Griess reaction, the concentrations of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by ELISA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation was evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis.
We found that Taraxasterol inhibited NO, PGE(2), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that Taraxasterol prevented the LPS-induced NF-κB translocation from cytoplasm into nuclear.
These results indicate that Taraxasterol has anti-inflammatory effect by blocking NF-κB pathway.
|Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2014 Feb;36(1):11-6. |
|Protective effect of taraxasterol against LPS-induced endotoxic shock by modulating inflammatory responses in mice.[Pubmed: 24286370]|
|Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene, was isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Taraxacum officinale. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of Taraxasterol on murine model of endotoxic shock and the mechanism of its action.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Mice were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg of Taraxasterol prior to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Survival of mice was monitored twice a day for 7 days. To further understand the mechanism, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and mediator nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) as well as histology of lungs were examined. The results showed that Taraxasterol significantly improved mouse survival and attenuated tissue injury of the lungs in LPS-induced endotoxemic mice. Further studies revealed that Taraxasterol significantly reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE₂ levels in sera from mice with endotoxic shock.
These results indicate that Taraxasterol has a protective effect on murine endotoxic shock induced by LPS through modulating inflammatory cytokine and mediator secretion. This finding might provide a new strategy for the treatment of endotoxic shock and associated inflammation.
|Oncology. 1996 Jul-Aug;53(4):341-4. |
|Inhibitory effect of taraxastane-type triterpenes on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.[Pubmed: 8692541]|
|Two taraxastane-type hydroxy triterpenes, Taraxasterol and faradiol, isolated from the flowers of Compositae plants Cynara scolymus (artichoke) and Chrysanthemum morifilolium (chrysanthemum), respectively, showed strong inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in mice. At 2.0 mumol/mouse, these compounds inhibited markedly the tumor-promoting effect of TPA (1 microgram/mouse) on skin tumor formation following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (50 micrograms/mouse).|
|J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 30;148(3):787-93. |
|Effects of taraxasterol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice.[Pubmed: 23727181]|
|Taraxasterol was isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Taraxacum officinale which has been frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we determined the in vivo protective effect of Taraxasterol on allergic asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA, and were orally treated daily with Taraxasterol at 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg from day 23 to 27 after sensitization. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13) production in BALF and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in sera were measured using ELISA. Histological changes in lung tissues were examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS). Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine was assessed.
Taraxasterol dramatically decreased the total inflammatory cell and main inflammatory cell counts, reduced the production of Th2 cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 in BALF and OVA-specific IgE in sera, and suppressed AHR in a dose-dependent manner. Histological studies demonstrated that Taraxasterol substantially suppressed OVA-induced inflammatory cells infiltration into lung tissues and goblet cell hyperplasia in airways.
This finding suggests that Taraxasterol protects against OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice.