|Free Radic Biol Med. 2015 Jun;83:41-53. |
|Kaempferol suppresses collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and protecting SHP-2 from oxidative inactivation.[Pubmed: 25645952]|
|Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon collagen stimulation act as second messengers to propagate various platelet-activating events. Among the ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a prominent role in platelet activation. Thus, NOX has been suggested as a novel target for anti-platelet drug development. Although Kaempferol has been identified as a NOX inhibitor, the influence of Kaempferol on the activation of platelets and the underlying mechanism have never been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of Kaempferol on NOX activation, ROS-dependent signaling pathways, and functional responses in collagen-stimulated platelets. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Superoxide anion generation stimulated by collagen was significantly inhibited by Kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, Kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX, and significantly inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and NOX activation. In accordance with the inhibition of NOX, ROS-dependent inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) was potently protected by Kaempferol. Subsequently, the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLCγ2) of collagen receptor signaling pathways was suppressed by Kaempferol. Kaempferol also attenuated downstream responses, including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Ultimately, Kaempferol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice.
This study shows that Kaempferol impairs collagen-induced platelet activation through inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. This effect suggests that Kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases.
|Int Immunopharmacol. 2015 Apr 11. |
|Kaempferol enhances the suppressive function of Treg cells by inhibiting FOXP3 phosphorylation.[Pubmed: 25870037]|
|Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid found in many vegetables and fruits. Epidemiologic studies have described that Kaempferol intake could reduce risk of cancer, especially lung, gastric, pancreatic and ovarian cancers. Recent studies have shown that Kaempferol could also be beneficial to the body to defend against inflammation, and infection by bacteria and viruses; however, the molecular mechanism of its immunoregulatory function remains largely unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Through screening a small molecule library of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we identified that Kaempferol could enhance the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Kaempferol was found to increase FOXP3 expression level in Treg cells and prevent pathological symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis in a rat animal model. Kaempferol could also reduce PIM1-mediated FOXP3 phosphorylation at S422.
Our study reveals a molecular mechanism that underlies the anti-inflammatory action of Kaempferol for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis.
|Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Jun;172(12):3003-14. |
|Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels.[Pubmed: 25652142]|
|BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:
The effect of Kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The effect of Kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs).
At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, Kaempferol (3 × 10(-6) M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by Kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10(-4) M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10(-6) M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10(-3) M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa 1.1; 10(-7) M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by Kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin.
The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, Kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of Kaempferol involved the activation of KCa 1.1 channels.
|Int J Nanomedicine . 2012;7:3951-9. |
|Kaempferol nanoparticles achieve strong and selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell viability[Pubmed: 22866004]|
|Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women throughout the Western world. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has shown promise in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer. A common concern about using dietary supplements for chemoprevention is their bioavailability. Nanoparticles have shown promise in increasing the bioavailability of some chemicals. Here we developed five different types of nanoparticles incorporating Kaempferol and tested their efficacy in the inhibition of viability of cancerous and normal ovarian cells. We found that positively charged nanoparticle formulations did not lead to a significant reduction in cancer cell viability, whereas nonionic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability. Among the nonionic polymeric nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) nanoparticles incorporating Kaempferol led to significant reduction in cell viability of both cancerous and normal cells. Poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating Kaempferol resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability together with no significant reduction in cell viability of normal cells compared with Kaempferol alone. Therefore, both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations were effective in reducing cancer cell viability, while PLGA nanoparticles incorporating Kaempferol had selective toxicity against cancer cells and normal cells. A PLGA nanoparticle formulation could be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. On the other hand, PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating Kaempferol were more effective inhibitors of cancer cells, but they also significantly reduced the viability of normal cells. PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating Kaempferol may be suitable as a cancer-targeting strategy, which could limit the effects of the nanoparticles on normal cells while retaining their potency against cancer cells. We have identified two nanoparticle formulations incorporating Kaempferol that may lead to breakthroughs in cancer treatment. Both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations had superior effects compared with Kaempferol alone in reducing cancer cell viability.|
|Anat Cell Biol . 2015 Dec;48(4):235-43. |
|Protective effects of kaempferol against cardiac sinus node dysfunction via CaMKII deoxidization[Pubmed: 26770873]|
|Kaempferol exerts cardioprotective actions through incompletely understood mechanisms. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of Kaempferol in sinus node dysfunction (SND) heart. Here, we demonstrate that angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion causes SND through oxidized calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII). In contrast to this, Kaempferol protects sinus node against Ang II-induced SND. Ang II evoked apoptosis with caspase-3 activation in sinus nodal cells. However, Kaempferol lowered the CaMKII oxidization and the sinus nodal cell death. To block the CaMKII oxidization, gene of p47phox, a cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase, was deleted using Cas9 KO plasmid. In the absence of p47phox, sinus nodal cells were highly resistance to Ang II-induced apoptosis, suggesting that oxidized-CaMKII contributed to sinus nodal cell death. In Langendorff heart from Ang II infused mice, Kaempferol preserved normal impulse formation at right atrium. These data suggested that Kaempferol protects sinus node via inhibition of CaMKII oxidization and may be useful for preventing SND in high risk patients.|
|J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Aug;26(8):868-75. |
|Kaempferol ameliorates symptoms of metabolic syndrome by regulating activities of liver X receptor-β.[Pubmed: 25959373]|
|Kaempferol is a dietary flavonol previously shown to regulate cellular lipid and glucose metabolism. However, its molecular mechanisms of action and target proteins have remained elusive, probably due to the involvement of multiple proteins.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
This study investigated the molecular targets of Kaempferol. Ligand binding of Kaempferol to liver X receptors (LXRs) was quantified by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance analyses. Kaempferol directly binds to and induces the transactivation of LXRs, with stronger specificity for the β-subtype (EC50 = 0.33 μM). The oral administration of Kaempferol in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice (150 mg/day/kg body weight) significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity compared with the vehicle-fed control. Kaempferol also reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations and did not cause liver steatosis, a common side effect of potent LXR activation. In immunoblotting analysis, Kaempferol reduced the nuclear accumulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1).
Our results show that the suppression of SREBP-1 activity and the selectivity for LXR-β over LXR-α by Kaempferol contribute to the reductions of plasma and hepatic triglyceride concentrations in mice fed Kaempferol. They also suggest that Kaempferol activates LXR-β and suppresses SREBP-1 to enhance symptoms in metabolic syndrome.
|Int J Mol Sci . 2015 Dec 16;16(12):29980-95. |
|Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma[Pubmed: 26694364]|
|Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether Kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic Kaempferol at 10-20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg Kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in Kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that Kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, Kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy.|