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    CAS No. 781658-23-9 Price $258 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99721Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight147.17Type of CompoundMiscellaneous
    FormulaC6H13NO3Physical DescriptionPowder
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison
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    Featured Products
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    Biological Activity
    Description: 4-Hydroxyisoleucine has antidepressant-like, antidyslipidemic, and antihyperglycemic effects. It acts to improve insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in high fructose diet fed STZ induced diabetic rats, it also has beneficial effects on low-grade inflammation.
    Targets: TNF-α | AMPK | Akt | GSK-3 | ROS | NF-kB | JNK | ERK | p38MAPK | 5-HT Receptor
    In vitro:
    Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014 Sep;395(1-2):51-60.
    4-Hydroxyisoleucine ameliorates fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inflammatory response in skeletal muscle cells.[Pubmed: 25109277]
    The 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL), an unusual amino acid isolated from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum was investigated for its metabolic effects to ameliorate free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells.
    An incubation of L6 myotubes with palmitate inhibited insulin stimulated-glucose uptake and -translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface. Addition of 4-Hydroxyisoleucine strongly prevented this inhibition. We then examined the insulin signaling pathway, where 4-Hydroxyisoleucine effectively inhibited the ability of palmitate to reduce insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (PKB/AKT), AKT substrate of 160 kD (AS160) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) in L6 myotubes. Moreover, 4-Hydroxyisoleucine presented strong inhibition on palmitate-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated inflammation, as the activation of NF-κB, JNK1/2, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK was greatly reduced. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine also inhibited inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and restored insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the presence of palmitate, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity.
    These findings suggested that 4-Hydroxyisoleucine could inhibit palmitate-induced, ROS-associated inflammation and restored insulin sensitivity through regulating IRS-1 function.
    In vivo:
    Fitoterapia. 2014 Dec;99:307-17.
    4-Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and act through AMPK and Akt dependent pathway.[Pubmed: 25454462]
    4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is an unusual amino acid isolated from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L). Various studies have shown that it acts as an antidiabetic agent yet its mechanism of action is not clear.
    We therefore investigated the effect 4-Hydroxyisoleucine on the high fructose diet fed streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and L6 myotubes. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (50 mg/kg) has improved blood lipid profile, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in a diabetic rat model. It has increased the glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in AMPK-dependent manner and upregulated the expression of genes (PGC-1α, PGC-1β, CPT 1 and CPT 2), which have role in mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver, skeletal muscles as well as in L6 myotubes. Interestingly, it also increased the AMPK and Akt expression along with their phosphorylated forms in the liver and muscle tissues of treated animals.
    Altogether we concluded that 4-Hydroxyisoleucine acts to improve insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in high fructose diet fed STZ induced diabetic rats.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jan 15;16(2):293-6.
    4-hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.[Pubmed: 16246556 ]
    Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant.
    From the seeds of T. foenum-graecum an unusual amino acid, 4-Hydroxyisoleucine 5, has been isolated, which significantly decreased the plasma triglyceride levels by 33% (P<0.002), total cholesterol (TC) by 22% (P<0.02), and free fatty acids by 14%, accompanied by an increase in HDL-C/TC ratio by 39% in the dyslipidemic hamster model.
    4-Hydroxyisoleucine Description
    Source: The seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Recently, ChemFaces products have been cited in many studies from excellent and top scientific journals

    Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):249-261.e12.
    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.12.019.

    PMID: 29328914

    Mol Cell. 2017 Nov 16;68(4):673-685.e6.
    doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.10.022.

    PMID: 29149595

    Scientific Reports 2017 Dec 11;7(1):17332.
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    PMID: 29230013

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    J Cell Biochem. 2018 Feb;119(2):2231-2239.
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    Phytomedicine. 2018 Feb 1;40:37-47.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 6.7949 mL 33.9743 mL 67.9486 mL 135.8973 mL 169.8716 mL
    5 mM 1.359 mL 6.7949 mL 13.5897 mL 27.1795 mL 33.9743 mL
    10 mM 0.6795 mL 3.3974 mL 6.7949 mL 13.5897 mL 16.9872 mL
    50 mM 0.1359 mL 0.6795 mL 1.359 mL 2.7179 mL 3.3974 mL
    100 mM 0.0679 mL 0.3397 mL 0.6795 mL 1.359 mL 1.6987 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Cell Research:
    Phytomedicine. 2015 Jan 15;22(1):66-70.
    In vitro anti-hyperglycemic activity of 4-hydroxyisoleucine derivatives.[Pubmed: 25636873]
    The nonproteinogenic amino acid, 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (1) has been isolated in large quantities from the fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) seeds.
    Few novel derivatives (3-11 and 13-18) were prepared from the naturally occurring 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (1) and screened for their in vitro glucose uptake stimulatory effect in L-6 skeletal muscle cells.
    The derivatives 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11 exhibited better glucose uptake stimulatory activity than parent compound, 4-Hydroxyisoleucine at 5 and 10μM concentrations and compounds 7 and 11 enhanced translocation of insulin sensitive glucose transporters-4 in skeletal muscle cells.
    Animal Research:
    Biomed. Aging Pathol., 2012, 2(3):121-5.
    Antidepressant-like effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine from Trigonella foenum graecum L. seeds in mice.[Reference: WebLink]
    Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fabaceae), also known as fenugreek, is one of the oldest medicinal plants, and has a long history of medical use in traditional and modern literature. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HI) constitutes about is 80% of the total content of free amino acids in Trigonella foenum graecum seeds.
    In present study, we report antidepressant-like effects of 4-HI in animal models of depression. The effects of 4-HI (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg) in Forced swim test, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches, and spontaneous motor activity (SMA) scores were assessed in mice. Oral acute administration of 4-HI showed the dose-dependent reversal in forced swim induced increased immobility behavior in normal and reserpinized mice in dose range of 3 to 30 mg/kg. The SMA scores were not affected by 4-HI in normal or reserpinized mice except for dose of 30 mg/kg, showing central rather than peripheral mechanism of 4-HI. Further, significant increase in number of 5-HTP (precursor of serotonin) induced head twitches was shown by 4-HI.
    In conclusion, 4-HI showed antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression by brain serotonin turnover enhancement.