|Source:||The herbs of Thesium chinense Turcz.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Afzelin has antibacterial activity.
2. Afzelin promotes cytotoxic effect.
3. Afzelin effectively treats asthma is based on reduction of Th2 cytokine via inhibition of GATA‑binding protein 3 transcription factor, which is the master regulator of Th2 cytokine differentiation and production.
4. Afzelin has several cellular activities such as DNA-protective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory as well as UV-absorbing activity and may protect human skin from UVB-induced damage by a combination of UV-absorbing and cellular activities.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.3127 mL||11.5634 mL||23.1267 mL||46.2535 mL||57.8168 mL|
|5 mM||0.4625 mL||2.3127 mL||4.6253 mL||9.2507 mL||11.5634 mL|
|10 mM||0.2313 mL||1.1563 mL||2.3127 mL||4.6253 mL||5.7817 mL|
|50 mM||0.0463 mL||0.2313 mL||0.4625 mL||0.9251 mL||1.1563 mL|
|100 mM||0.0231 mL||0.1156 mL||0.2313 mL||0.4625 mL||0.5782 mL|
PLoS One. 2013 Apr 23;8(4):e61971.
|Antagonizing effects and mechanisms of afzelin against UVB-induced cell damage.[Pubmed: 23626759]|
|We investigated the protective effects of Afzelin, one of the flavonoids, against UV irradiation in human keratinocytes and epidermal equivalent models. Spectrophotometric measurements revealed that the Afzelin extinction maxima were in the UVB and UVA range, and UV transmission below 376 nm was <10%, indicating UV-absorbing activity of Afzelin. In the phototoxicity assay using the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT), Afzelin presented a tendency to no phototoxic potential. In addition, in order to investigate cellular functions of Afzelin itself, cells were treated with Afzelin after UVB irradiation. In human keratinocyte, Afzelin effectively inhibited the UVB-mediated increase in lipid peroxidation and the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Afzelin also inhibited UVB-induced cell death in human keratinocytes by inhibiting intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, Afzelin showed inhibitory effects on UVB-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin-E2 in human keratinocytes by interfering with the p38 kinase pathway. Using an epidermal equivalent model exposed to UVB radiation, anti-apoptotic activity of Afzelin was also confirmed together with a photoprotective effect at the morphological level. Taken together, our results suggest that Afzelin has several cellular activities such as DNA-protective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory as well as UV-absorbing activity and may protect human skin from UVB-induced damage by a combination of UV-absorbing and cellular activities.|
Molecules. 2014 Mar 17;19(3):3173-80.
|Antibacterial effects of afzelin isolated from Cornus macrophylla on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals.[Pubmed: 24642906]|
|Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (Afzelin). The structure was determined based on evaluation of its spectroscopic (UV, MS, and NMR) data. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Afzelin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 31 µg/mL. In addition, the results indicated that a hydroxyl group at C3 of the C-ring of the flavone skeleton and the rhamnose group may act as a negative factor and an enhancing factor, respectively, in the antibacterial activities of Afzelin.|
Mol Med Rep. 2015 Jul;12(1):71-6.
|Afzelin attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 in a murine model of asthma.[Pubmed: 25738969]|
|To investigate the anti‑asthmatic potential of Afzelin, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved, its anti‑asthmatic potential were investigated in a murine model of asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized using ovalbumin (OVA) followed by aerosol allergen challenges. The effect of Afzelin on airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic infiltration, Th2 cytokine and OVA‑specific IgE production in a mouse model of asthma were investigated. It was found that Afzelin‑treated groups suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, OVA‑specific IgE and Th2 cytokine secretion. The results of the present study suggested that the therapeutic mechanism by which Afzelin effectively treats asthma is based on reduction of Th2 cytokine via inhibition of GATA‑binding protein 3 transcription factor, which is the master regulator of Th2 cytokine differentiation and production.|
Arch Pharm Res. 2014 Oct 15.
|Preliminary in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of afzelin, kaempferitrin and pterogynoside action over free radicals and reactive oxygen species.[Pubmed: 25315635]|
|Biological activities of flavonoids have been extensively reviewed in literature. The biochemical profile of Afzelin, kaempferitrin, and pterogynoside acting on reactive oxygen species was investigated in this paper. The flavonoids were able to act as scavengers of the superoxide anion, hypochlorous acid and taurine chloramine. Although flavonoids are naturally occurring substances in plants which antioxidant activities have been widely advertised as beneficial, Afzelin, kaempferitrin, and pterogynoside were able to promote cytotoxic effect.|