|Source:||The roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Ginsenoside Rg5 could be a beneficial agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
2. Ginsenoside Rg5 suppresses LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory TNF-α secretion.
3. Ginsenoside Rg5 can ameliorate lung inflammation possibly by inhibiting the binding of LPS to toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 on macrophages.
4. Ginsenoside Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature.
5. Ginsenoside Rg5 blocks cell cycle of SK-HEP-1 cells at the Gl/S transition phase by down-regulating cyclin E-dependent kinase activity and that the down-regulation of cyclin E-dependent kinase activity is caused mainly by induced CDK2 inhibitor, p21Cip/WAF1 and decreased levels of cyclin E.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.3038 mL||6.5189 mL||13.0378 mL||26.0756 mL||32.5945 mL|
|5 mM||0.2608 mL||1.3038 mL||2.6076 mL||5.2151 mL||6.5189 mL|
|10 mM||0.1304 mL||0.6519 mL||1.3038 mL||2.6076 mL||3.2595 mL|
|50 mM||0.0261 mL||0.1304 mL||0.2608 mL||0.5215 mL||0.6519 mL|
|100 mM||0.013 mL||0.0652 mL||0.1304 mL||0.2608 mL||0.3259 mL|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Apr;19(2):317-26.
|Ginsenoside Rg5 improves cognitive dysfunction and beta-amyloid deposition in STZ-induced memory impaired rats via attenuating neuroinflammatory responses.[Pubmed: 24503167]|
|Neuroinflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5), an abundant natural compound in Panax ginseng, has been found to be beneficial in treating AD. In the present study, we demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg5 improved cognitive dysfunction and attenuated neuroinflammatory responses in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impaired rats. Cognitive deficits were ameliorated with Ginsenoside Rg5 (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) treatment in a dose-dependent manner together with decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05) in brains of STZ rats. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also significantly reduced by Ginsenoside Rg5 whereas choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was remarkably increased in the cortex and hippocampus of STZ-induced AD rats (P<0.05). Western blot analysis also demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg5 increased remarkably BDNF and IGF-1 expressions whereas decreased significantly Aβ deposits (P<0.05). Furthermore, it was observed that the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS were significantly up-regulated in STZ-induced AD rats and down-regulated strongly (P<0.05) by Ginsenoside Rg5 compared with control rats. These data demonstrated that STZ-induced learning and memory impairments in rats could be improved by Ginsenoside Rg5, which was associated with attenuating neuroinflammatory responses. Our findings suggested that Ginsenoside Rg5 could be a beneficial agent for the treatment of AD.|
J Biol Chem. 2015 Jan 2;290(1):467-77.
|Specific activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by ginsenoside Rg5 promotes angiogenesis and vasorelaxation.[Pubmed: 25391655 ]|
|Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Ginsenoside Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Ginsenoside Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Ginsenoside Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Ginsenoside Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Ginsenoside Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Ginsenoside Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Ginsenoside Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Ginsenoside Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Ginsenoside Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature.|
Int J Mol Sci. 2013 May 8;14(5):9820-33.
|Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ginsenoside Rg5 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells.[Pubmed: 23698769]|
|We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Ginsenoside Rg5 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and rat primary microglia. The data showed that Ginsenoside Rg5 suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory TNF-α secretion. In addition, Ginsenoside Rg5 inhibited the mRNA expressions of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1b, COX-2 and MMP-9 induced by LPS. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Ginsenoside Rg5 inhibited the phophorylations of PI3K/Akt and MAPKs and the DNA binding activities of NF-kB and AP-1, which are upstream molecules controlling inflammatory reactions. Moreover, Ginsenoside Rg5 suppressed ROS production with upregulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Overall, microglial inactivation by ginsenoside Ginsenoside Rg5 may provide a therapeutic potential for various neuroinflammatory disorders.|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Jan;12(1):110-6.
|Ginsenoside Rg5 ameliorates lung inflammation in mice by inhibiting the binding of LPS to toll-like receptor-4 on macrophages.[Pubmed: 22107725]|
|The biological activity of Ginsenoside Rg5, a major constituent of steamed ginseng, remains to be explored. Here, we isolated Ginsenoside Rg5 and examined anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and on LPS-induced lung inflammation. Ginsenoside Rg5 inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as inflammatory enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages. Ginsenoside Rg5 also reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAK)-1 and IKK-β, as well as the degradation of IRAK-1 and IRAK-4. Ginsenoside Rg5 inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB as well as the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. When macrophages were treated with Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated LPS in the presence of Ginsenoside Rg5, the fluorescence intensity of LPS observed outside the cell membrane was lower than that in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages alone. Ginsenoside Rg5, inhibited the levels of protein and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of LPS-stimulated mice, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β. Ginsenoside Rg5 also inhibited iNOS and COX expressions, and NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated lung inflammation of mice. The inhibitory effect of Ginsenoside Rg5 (10 mg/kg) was comparable to that of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg). Based on these findings, Ginsenoside Rg5 can ameliorate lung inflammation possibly by inhibiting the binding of LPS to toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 on macrophages.|
Anticancer Res. 1997 Mar-Apr;17(2A):1067-72.
|Ginsenoside-Rg5 suppresses cyclin E-dependent protein kinase activity via up-regulating p21Cip/WAF1 and down-regulating cyclin E in SK-HEP-1 cells.[Pubmed: 9137450]|
|In the present study, we report that Ginsenoside Rg5 (G-Rg5), a newly discovered diol-containing ginsenoside, blocks the cell cycle of human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells via the down-regulation of cyclin E-dependent kinase activity. The results from flow cytometric analyses show that Ginsenoside Rg5 arrests the cell cycle of SK-HEP-1 cells at the Gl/S transition phase. The cyclin E-dependent kinase activity that has been immunoprecipitated with cyclin E-specific antibody is down-regulated in response to Ginsenoside Rg5. The results from immunoblottings show that the down-regulation of cyclin E-dependent kinase activity is related to increased protein levels of p21Cip/WAF1 and to decreased protein levels of cyclin E, CDK2, and CDC25A. Collectively, these data suggest that Ginsenoside Rg5 blocks cell cycle of SK-HEP-1 cells at the Gl/S transition phase by down-regulating cyclin E-dependent kinase activity and that the down-regulation of cyclin E-dependent kinase activity is caused mainly by induced CDK2 inhibitor, p21Cip/WAF1 and decreased levels of cyclin E.|