|Description:||1. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid shows protective effects in Barrett's esophagus cells by inhibiting oxidative stress. |
2. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid and interleukin-10 modulate inflammation and cell survival, they may have potential benefits in reducing UCB-induced astrocyte immunostimulation and death.
3. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 and caspase-9 activation in a cellular model of superoxide dismutase-1 neurodegeneration.
|Targets:||TNF-α | IL Receptor | SOD | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | Caspase|
|Source:||The metabolites of ursodeoxycholic acid.|
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.2241 mL||11.1203 mL||22.2405 mL||44.481 mL||55.6013 mL|
|5 mM||0.4448 mL||2.2241 mL||4.4481 mL||8.8962 mL||11.1203 mL|
|10 mM||0.2224 mL||1.112 mL||2.2241 mL||4.4481 mL||5.5601 mL|
|50 mM||0.0445 mL||0.2224 mL||0.4448 mL||0.8896 mL||1.112 mL|
|100 mM||0.0222 mL||0.1112 mL||0.2224 mL||0.4448 mL||0.556 mL|
Dis Esophagus. 2010 Feb;23(2):83-93.
|Protective effects of glycoursodeoxycholic acid in Barrett's esophagus cells[Pubmed: 19549210 ]|
|DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly increased, while thiol levels were decreased in BE cells treated with pH 4 and bile acid cocktail compared with cells treated with pH 4 alone or untreated cells. Bile acids and low pH also significantly decreased cell proliferation. Expression of the antioxidant enzymes, MnSOD and CuZnSOD, was elevated in the cells treated with bile acids and low pH. When Glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA)was included in the medium, all these effects of pH 4 and bile acids were markedly reduced. In conclusion, treatment of BE cells with acidified medium and a bile acid cocktail at physiologically relevant concentrations induces DNA damage, cytotoxicity, and ROS. The cytoprotective bile acid, GUDCA, inhibits these deleterious effects by inhibiting oxidative stress.|
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007 Sep;66(9):789-98.
|Glycoursodeoxycholic acid and interleukin-10 modulate the reactivity of rat cortical astrocytes to unconjugated bilirubin.[Pubmed: 17805009]|
|The pathogenesis of bilirubin encephalopathy seems to result from accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) within the brain. We have recently demonstrated that UCB causes astroglial release of proinflammatory cytokines and glutamate, as well as cell death. The bile acid Glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 have been reported to modulate inflammation and cell survival. In this study we investigated the effect of these therapeutic agents on the astroglial response to UCB. Only GUDCA prevented UCB-induced astroglial death. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-1beta elicited by UCB in astrocytes was reduced in the presence of GUDCA and IL-10, whereas the suppression of IL-6 was only counteracted by GUDCA. Neither GUDCA nor IL-10 modulated the accumulation of extracellular glutamate. Additionally, IL-10 markedly inhibited UCB-induced nuclear factor-kappaB nuclear translocation and cytokine mRNA expression, whereas GUDCA only prevented TNF-alpha mRNA expression. Moreover, GUDCA inhibited TNF-alpha- and IL-1beta-converting enzymes, preventing the maturation of these cytokines and their consequent release. Collectively, this study shows that IL-10 action is restricted to UCB-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta from the astrocytes, whereas GUDCA presents a more ubiquitous action on the astroglial reactivity to UCB. Hence, GUDCA may have potential benefits over an IL-10 therapeutic approach in reducing UCB-induced astrocyte immunostimulation and death.|
Mol Neurobiol. 2015;51(3):864-77.
|Glycoursodeoxycholic acid reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 and caspase-9 activation in a cellular model of superoxide dismutase-1 neurodegeneration.[Pubmed: 24848512 ]|
|We explored the mechanisms associated with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) accumulation and MN degeneration in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells differentiated for 4 days in vitro (DIV). We examined GUDCA(Glycoursodeoxycholic acid) efficacy in preventing such pathological events and in restoring MN functionality by incubating cells with 50 μM GUDCA at 0 DIV and at 2 DIV, respectively. Increased cytosolic SOD1 inclusions were observed in 4 DIV NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells together with decreased mitochondria viability (1.2-fold, p < 0.01), caspase-9 activation (1.8-fold, p < 0.05), and apoptosis (2.1-fold, p < 0.01). GUDCA exerted preventive effects (p < 0.05) while also reduced caspase-9 levels when added at 2 DIV (p < 0.05). ATP depletion (2-fold, p < 0.05), increased nitrites (1.6-fold, p < 0.05) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation (1.8-fold, p < 0.05), but no changes in MMP-2, were observed in the extracellular media of 4 DIV NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells. GUDCA inhibited nitrite production (p < 0.05) while simultaneously prevented and reverted MMP-9 activation (p < 0.05), but not ATP depletion. Data highlight caspase-9 and MMP-9 activation as key pathomechanisms in ALS and GUDCA as a promising therapeutic strategy for slowing disease onset and progression.|