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    Hydroxysafflor yellow A
    Information
    CAS No. 78281-02-4 Price $88 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99950Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight612.53Type of CompoundChalcones
    FormulaC27H32O16Physical DescriptionYellow powder
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Hydroxysafflor yellow A(H-A) possesses hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities, it can effectively protect the liver of rats from long-term alcohol injury, which relates with the enhanced antioxidant capacity of liver tissues and inhibition of TGF-β1 expression, it also inhibited angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma via blocking ERK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice. H-A also can provide protection to H9c2 cardiomyocytes against A/R-induced apoptosis by the upregulation of HO-1 expression through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
    Targets: TGF-β/Smad | ERK | Raf | p38MAPK | NF-kB | p65 | IkB | VEGFR | ROS | IL Receptor | TNF-α | TLR | JNK | PI3K | Akt | Nrf2 | Bcl-2/Bax | HIF | IKK | HO-1
    In vitro:
    Int J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 4;160(2):95-101.
    Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression by hydroxysafflor yellow A conferring protection from anoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.[Pubmed: 21497407 ]
    Reperfusion therapy is widely utilized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), so ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart is frequently encountered in clinical practice. The curative effects of reperfusion therapy for AMI are favourable in most cases, but reperfusion can also cause harmful effect to cardiomyocytes. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an effective therapeutic agent to alleviate I/R injury, but the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect are unknown.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    The H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell line was incubated with or without HSYA during hypoxia, then it was reoxygenated. In the presence of HSYA, reoxygenation resulted in the upregulated expression and activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), phosphorylation of Akt, translocation of nuclear factor Nrf2, and most importantly, a reduction in A/R-induced apoptosis. An HO-1 inhibitor completely suppressed HO-1 enzymatic activity upregulated by HSYA and notably diminished the anti-apoptotic effect of HSYA. An inhibitor of PI3K, completely blocked Akt phosphorylation induced by HSYA and partly negated HSYA-induced upregulation of HO-1, translocation of nuclear factor Nrf2 and suppression of apoptosis in the H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Our study suggests that HSYA can provide protection to H9c2 cardiomyocytes against A/R-induced apoptosis. This protective effect largely depends on the upregulation of HO-1 expression through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;52(2):191-202.
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A enhances survival of vascular endothelial cells under hypoxia via upregulation of the HIF-1 alpha-VEGF pathway and regulation of Bcl-2/Bax.[Pubmed: 18670359 ]
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a component of the flower Carthamus tinctorius L. The present investigation determines whether HSYA can modify the effects of hypoxia on vascular endothelial cells (EC) and its mechanisms.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Human EC line (EAhy926) viability was determined using the MTT assay. EC cycle phase distribution was done with PI staining and flow cytometric analysis, and EC apoptosis was done by AnnexinV-FITC detection and the TUNEL assay. The protein levels of VEGF, Bcl-2, Bax, and HIF-1 alpha were determined by ELISA or Western blot analysis, and the mRNA expression of these genes by RT-PCR analysis. HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity was measured using a reporter gene assay. HSYA improved cell viability under hypoxia in a concentration-dependent manner by attenuating its cycle arrest and inhibiting its apoptosis. HSYA upregulated the bcl-2/bax ratio, which is downregulated under hypoxia, increased VEGF protein concentration and VEGF mRNA expression and enhanced HIF-1 alpha protein accumulation and its transcriptional activity.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    In conclusion, HSAY could enhance the survival of ECs under hypoxia, which may be correlated with its effect of upregulating the bcl-2/bax ratio and promoting HIF-1 alpha protein accumulation, which increases VEGF. These findings provide evidence for the mechanisms by which HSYA maintains EC survival under hypoxia.
    In vivo:
    J Physiol Biochem. 2015 Mar;71(1):69-78.
    Protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.[Pubmed: 25626885]
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), the main active natural constituent extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L., has been widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on alcohol-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish the liver injury model induced by alcohol. Hydroxysafflor yellow A treatment ameliorated serum biochemical indicators by reducing the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronan (HA), laminin (LN), and type III precollagen (III-C) in rats. Hydroxysafflor yellow A efficiently increased the activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in rat liver tissue compared with those of model group, which was obviously reduced by alcohol. Hydroxysafflor yellow A also apparently decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat liver tissue compared with those of model group, which was obviously enhanced by alcohol. Histological studies demonstrated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A substantially reduced the number of macro- and micro-vesicular steatosis, suppressed hepatic fibrogenesis and shrunk ballooning degeneration areas, ameliorated the severity of liver damage induced by long-term drinking, and finally improved the liver architecture. In addition, immunohistochemistry study indicated that the activation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) stimulated by alcohol in rat liver tissue was significantly blocked by Hydroxysafflor yellow A .
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Collectively, these data demonstrated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A can effectively protect the liver of rats from long-term alcohol injury, which relates with the enhanced antioxidant capacity of liver tissues and inhibition of TGF-β1 expression.
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A Description
    Source: The stigma of Crocus sativus L.
    Solvent: DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 1.6326 mL 8.1629 mL 16.3257 mL 32.6515 mL 40.8143 mL
    5 mM 0.3265 mL 1.6326 mL 3.2651 mL 6.5303 mL 8.1629 mL
    10 mM 0.1633 mL 0.8163 mL 1.6326 mL 3.2651 mL 4.0814 mL
    50 mM 0.0327 mL 0.1633 mL 0.3265 mL 0.653 mL 0.8163 mL
    100 mM 0.0163 mL 0.0816 mL 0.1633 mL 0.3265 mL 0.4081 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Kinase Assay:
    Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 May 5;754:105-14.
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A inhibits angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma via blocking ERK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice.[Pubmed: 25720342]
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a flavonoid derived and isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Carthamus tinctorius L., possesses anti-tumor activity. However, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been investigated.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    The proliferation and metastasis of HCC are dependent on angiogenesis, which also strongly links with several signal transduction pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to explore the effect of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on vasculogenesis and to determine its molecular mechanism by investigating the expression of ERK/MAPK (p-c-Raf, c-Raf, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2) and NF-κB (p65, IκB and p-IκB) signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A could considerably suppress tumor growth by inhibiting secretion of angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor A, basic fibroblast growth factor) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1. At the moleculcould block ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then restrain the activation of NF-κB and its nuclear translocation by down-regulating the expression of p65 in the nucleus, up-regulating p65 level in the cytoplasm, inhibiting IκB phosphorylation and cytoplasmic degradation of IκB-α. Finally, we demonstrate that Hydroxysafflor yellow A could suppress mRNA expression levels of cell proliferation-related genes (cyclinD1, c-myc, c-Fos) compared with negative control group. And best of all,Hydroxysafflor yellow A could improve spleen/thymus indexes, which was evaluated as the marker of protective effect on the immune system.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Our findings support Hydroxysafflor yellow A as a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of HCC.
    Cell Research:
    Cytotechnology. 2015 Oct;67(5):885-92.
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HYSA) inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.[Pubmed: 25749912]
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a main component of safflor yellow, has been demonstrated to prevent steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head by inhibiting primary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells adipogenic differentiation induced by steroid.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    In this study, we investigate the effect of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on the proliferation and adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The effects of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and its possible mechanism were studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry, Oil Red O staining, intracellular triglyceride assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, transient transfection and dual luciferase reporter gene methods. Hydroxysafflor yellow A inhibited the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and cell viability greatly decreased in a dose and time dependent manner. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (1 mg/l) notably reduced the amount of intracellular lipid and triglyceride content in adipocytes by 21.3 % (2.13 ± 0.36 vs 2.71 ± 0.40, P < 0.01) and 22.6 % (1.33 ± 0.07 vs 1.72 ± 0.07, P < 0.01) on days 8 following the differentiation, respectively.Hydroxysafflor yellow A(1 mg/l) significantly increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA expression and promoter activities by 2.4- and 1.55-fold, respectively (P < 0.01), in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A inhibits the proliferation and adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The inhibitory action of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on adipogenesis may be due to the promotion of lipolytic-specific enzyme HSL expression by increasing HSL promoter activity.
    Animal Research:
    Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Dec;23(2):649-57.
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice via modulating toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways.[Pubmed: 25466274]
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a main bio-active compound important of a traditional Chinese medicine named Carthamus tinctorius L. and has been shown to possess various effects, especially anti-inflammatory benefits and potential protections against acute lung injury (ALI) in previous studies.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Therefore, in this present study, we aimed to evaluating effects of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results demonstrated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A abated LPS-induced pathological change and attenuated lung vascular permeability and edema. Hydroxysafflor yellow A down-regulated both the ability of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissues and levels of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IFN(interferon)-β in serum. Moreover, Hydroxysafflor yellow A prevented toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) protein up-expressions. In addition, the activations of mitogen-activated protein kinases including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were blocked by Hydroxysafflor yellow A. And also, the phosphorylations of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/p65 and inhibitory kappa B (IκB)-α were inhibited by Hydroxysafflor yellow A.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    In conclusion, Hydroxysafflor yellow A attenuated inflammatory response in ALI mice through inhibition of TLR 4-dependent signaling pathways.