|J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013;15(1):71-7. |
|Chemical constituents of Arisaema franchetianum tubers.[Pubmed: 23106482]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A novel pyrrolidine alkaloid, (2R*,3S*,5S*)-N,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-5-(10-phenyldecyl)pyrrolidine (1), and 17 known compounds were isolated from Arisaema franchetianum Engl. (Araceae) tubers. The 17 compounds were bergenin (2), emodin (3), caffeic acid (4), nobiletin (5), 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-hederagenin 28-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl(1 → 6)-β-d-galactopyranosyl ester (6), coniferin (7), qingyangshengenin (8), methylconiferin (9), syringaresinol 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10), gagaminine (11), perlolyrine (12), (S)-1-(1'-hydroxyethyl)-β-carboline (13), 1-(β-carboline-1-yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-pentanone (14), 1-methoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (15), indolo[2,3-α]carbazole (16), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester (17), and methyl 4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl] ferulate (18).
The inhibitory activities of compound 1 and its N-methyl derivative (1a) against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), human leukemic K562 cells, and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were evaluated. Compounds 1 [50% inhibited concentration (IC(50)) = 12.5 ± 0.6 μM] and 1a (IC(50) = 15.7 ± 0.9 μM) were cytotoxic against K562 cells. Compound 1a also had a weak effect on PRRSV with an IC(50) value of 31.9 ± 6.0 μM [selectivity index (SI) = 18.7].
|J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Aug;48(8):3662-5. |
|Effect of spores of saprophytic fungi on phytoalexin accumulation in seeds of frog-eye leaf spot and stem canker-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars.[Pubmed: 10956166]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Two saprophytic fungi (Mucor ramosissimus and Rhizopus sp.) were tested for their ability to induce phytoalexin production by seeds of frog-eye leaf spot and stem canker-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars. Only M. ramosissimus was shown to elicit a response and qualitative differences in phytoalexin accumulation were found between the susceptible and resistant cultivars. Glyceollins I, II, and III and glycinol were isolated from the susceptible cultivar, whereas Glyceollins I, II, and III, glycinol, glyceocarpin, genistein, Isoformononetin, and N-acetyltyramine accumulated in the resistant cultivar in response to the same fungal elicitor. Genistein was found to be an inducibly formed isoflavonoid instead of a constitutive metabolite in the resistant cultivar, whereas N-acetyltyramine is described for the first time as a soybean phytoalexin.
All the compounds, except genistein, showed fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. Spectral data of the pterocarpan phytoalexins, genistein, and N-acetyltyramine are also given in this work.
|Menopause. 2016 May;23(5):565-76. |
|Methoxyisoflavones formononetin and isoformononetin inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells and B-cell lymphopoesis to promote osteogenesis in estrogen-deficient bone loss conditions.[Pubmed: 27070807 ]|
|Recent studies have shown that immune system plays a major role in pathophysiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Previously we have shown that phytoestrogens like daidzein and medicarpin exhibit immunoprotective effects, by virtue of which they alleviate bone loss. With this background, methoxyisoflavones like formononetin (formo) and Isoformononetin (isoformo) that have been studied for preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats were tested for their immunomodulatory effects in estrogen-deficient bone loss mice model. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Adult Balb/c mice (N = 8/group) were given oral dose of formo and isoformo at 10 mg/kg body weight, post ovariectomy (Ovx) daily for 6 weeks. Animals were autopsied and long bones were harvested to study bone microarchitecture. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated for fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RNA analysis. Serum was collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was observed that formo and isoformo treatment to Ovx mice led to significant restoration of Ovx-induced deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Pro-osteoclastogenic subset Th17 and B cells were decreased in formo/isoformo-treated Ovx mice in comparison with vehicle-treated Ovx group. Formo and isoformo treatment to Ovx mice also led to decreased expression of Th17 diffentiation factors and promoted T-regulatory cell differentiation. Formo was more effective in enhancing the FOXP3 expression compared with isoformo. IL-17A-induced osteoclastogenesis and inhibition of osteoblast apoptosis were also suppressed by formo and isoformo treatment, with formo having a more potent effect.
Our study demonstrates the immunomodulatory activity of methoxyisoflavones, formo, and isoformo, which translate into improved skeletal parameters, thereby preventing Ovx-induced bone loss.