|Source:||The leaves of Laggera pterodonta|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Penduletin shows anti- tumor cells activity.
2. Penduletin significantly reduces TGF-β1 production.
3. Penduletin has strong activity in vitro against EV71 with low cytotoxicity.
4. Penduletin inhibits growth of the Gram-negative pathogen neisseria gonorrhoeae.
5. Penduletin may have anti-inflammatory activity, it can partially inhibit synovial phospholipase A2 activity.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.9044 mL||14.5222 mL||29.0444 mL||58.0889 mL||72.6111 mL|
|5 mM||0.5809 mL||2.9044 mL||5.8089 mL||11.6178 mL||14.5222 mL|
|10 mM||0.2904 mL||1.4522 mL||2.9044 mL||5.8089 mL||7.2611 mL|
|50 mM||0.0581 mL||0.2904 mL||0.5809 mL||1.1618 mL||1.4522 mL|
|100 mM||0.029 mL||0.1452 mL||0.2904 mL||0.5809 mL||0.7261 mL|
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011 Oct 9;44(3):392-8.
|Inhibition of enterovirus 71 replication by chrysosplenetin and penduletin.[Pubmed: 21914477]|
|Here we investigated the anti-EV71 activity of chrysosplenetin and Penduletin, two o-methylated flavonols isolated from the leaves of Laggera pterodonta. These two compounds were found to have strong activity in vitro against EV71 with low cytotoxicity. In the cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays, both plaque reduction assay and virus yield inhibition assay, the compounds showed a similar 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of about 0.20 μM. The selectivity indices (SI) of chrysosplenetin and Penduletin were 107.5 and 655.6 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and 69.5 and 200.5 in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, accordingly.|
Phytother Res. 2011 Jun;25(6):916-21.
|Flavonoids inhibit angiogenic cytokine production by human glioma cells.[Pubmed: 21170924]|
|VEGF and TGF-β1 levels were dosed by ELISA in a GL-15 cell line treated with bevacizumab and also with the flavonoids rutin, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, casticin, apigenin and Penduletin. Rutin reduced the VEGF and TGF-β1 levels after 24 h but not after 72 h. The other flavonoids significantly reduced TGF-β1 production. Bevacizumab reduced only the VEGF levels in the supernatant from GL-15 cultures. These results suggest that the flavonoids studied, and commonly used in popular medicine, present an interesting subject of study due to their potential effect as angiogenic factor inhibitors.|
Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23(9):1336-9.
|Antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory compounds from Vitex agnus-castus.[Pubmed: 19173281]|
|Several secondary metabolites, artemetin (1), casticin (2), 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxy flavon (3), Penduletin (4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (7), 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzoic acid (8), vanillic acid (9) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10) were isolated from a folkloric medicinal plant, Vitex agnus-castus. The structures of compounds 1-10 were identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3-10 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These compounds were screened for their antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities.|
Oncol Res. 2005;15(2):59-68.
|Antineoplastic agents 540. The Indian Gynandropsis gynandra (Capparidaceae).[Pubmed: 16119003 ]|
|Penduletin (3) inhibited growth of the Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae and apegenin (4) inhibited growth of the Gram-positive opportunist Enterococcus faecalis.|
Planta Med. 2006 Jan;72(1):72-4.
|Flavonoids from Artemisia copa with anti-inflammatory activity.[Pubmed: 16450301 ]|
|Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Artemisia copa led to the isolation of the flavonoids spinacetin, jaceosidin, axillarin, Penduletin, tricin and chrysoeriol. These compounds were studied for possible inhibitory activity on the generation of inflammatory mediators in a cell line of mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Spinacetin and jaceosidin weakly inhibited nitric oxide production whereas all flavonoids reduced prostaglandin E2 levels to different extents. The most active flavonoid was jaceosidin that inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 activity in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.8 microM. In addition, the other flavonoids partially inhibited synovial phospholipase A2 activity. These mechanisms may provide a basis for explaining the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant.|
Neurochem Int. 2011 Feb;58(2):153-60.
|Anti-inflammatory activity of xanthohumol involves heme oxygenase-1 induction via NRF2-ARE signaling in microglial BV2 cells.[Pubmed: 21093515 ]|
|Xanthohumol (2',4',4-trihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-prenylchalcone) is a major chalcone derivative isolated from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) commonly used in brewing due to its bitter flavors. Xanthohumol has anti-carcinogenic, free radical-scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities, but its precise mechanisms are not clarified yet. The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein NRF2 is a key transcription factor mediating the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses in animals. Therefore, we tested whether xanthohumol exerts anti-inflammatory activity in mouse microglial BV2 cells via NRF2 signaling. Xanthohumol significantly inhibited the excessive production of inflammatory mediators NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and the activation of NF-κB signaling in LPS-induced stimulated BV2 cells. Xanthohumol up-regulated the transcription of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and increased the level of the endogenous antioxidant GSH. In addition, xanthohumol induced nuclear translocation of NRF2 and further activation of ARE promoter-related transcription. The anti-inflammatory response of xanthohumol was attenuated by transfection with NRF2 siRNA and in the presence of the HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, but not the NQO1 inhibitor, dicoumarol. Taken together, our study suggests that xanthohumol exerts anti-inflammatory activity through NRF2-ARE signaling and up-regulation of downstream HO-1, and could be an attractive candidate for the regulation of inflammatory responses in the brain.|
Phytochemistry. 2013 Jul;91:236-41.
|Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.[Pubmed: 22640929 ]|
|Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome.|