|Description:||1. Protoveratrine A enhances the release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminals during the resting period and at low frequency of stimulation.|
2. Protoveratrine A seems to involve at least in part an inhibition of dopaminergic neuron activity.
3. Protoveratrine A has depolarizing effects on the rat diaphram.
4. Protoveratrine A has some effects on cardiovascular and respiratory systems in rats in reducing the blood pressure and heart rate,prolonging the QTc interval,decreasing the respiratory rate and increasing the respiratory width.
5. Protoveratrine A can increase K + uptake from frog skeletal muscle and cause this tissue to release more calcium (Ca ++ ).
6. Protoveratrine A has anti-hypertensive action.
|Targets:||Calcium Channel | Potassium Channel|
|Source:||The roots of Veratrum nigrum L.|
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.2595 mL||6.2977 mL||12.5954 mL||25.1908 mL||31.4885 mL|
|5 mM||0.2519 mL||1.2595 mL||2.5191 mL||5.0382 mL||6.2977 mL|
|10 mM||0.126 mL||0.6298 mL||1.2595 mL||2.5191 mL||3.1489 mL|
|50 mM||0.0252 mL||0.126 mL||0.2519 mL||0.5038 mL||0.6298 mL|
|100 mM||0.0126 mL||0.063 mL||0.126 mL||0.2519 mL||0.3149 mL|
|Potentiation by crotamine of the depolarizing effects of batrachotoxin, protoveratrine A and grayanotoxin I on the rat diaphragm.[Pubmed: 6312634]|
|The interactions between crotamine and tetrodotoxin and group II sodium channel toxins, including batrachotoxin, Protoveratrine A and grayanotoxin I, were studied on the rat diaphragm muscle.|
J Neural Transm. 1975;37(1):43-60.
|The effects of protoveratrine and germines on the release of acetylcholine from the Auerbach plexus of the guinea-pig ileum.[Pubmed: 1159414]|
|The effect of Protoveratrine A and germine-3-acetate (GMA) on the release mechanism of acetylcholine from the nerve terminals of the Auerbach plexus in the longitudinal muscle layer of the guinea-pig ileum was studied. Protoveratrine A, GMA and germine potentiated neuroeffector transmission in Auerbach's plexus in the longitudinal muscle preparation provided the neurons were stimulated at low frequencies (less than 10 Hz). Protoveratrine A and GMA enhanced the release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminals during the resting period and at low frequency of stimulation (less than 10 Hz).|
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1980 May;12(5):735-8.
|The alpha-naphthoxyacetic acid-elicited retching involves dopaminergic inhibition in mice.[Pubmed: 7393967]|
|Protoveratrine A (PV-A, 0.1 mg/kg), a veratrum alkaloid, also induced retching in mice and vomiting in pigeons, while apomorphine (2 mg/kg) produced neither retching in mice nor vomiting in pigeons though it induced feeding in pigeons. The retching elicited by alpha-NOAA or Protoveratrine A was not significantly affected by scopolamine, aminooxyacetic acid and gamma-butyrolactone, but was markedly inhibited by apomorphine (2 mg/kg), this inhibitory effect being antagonized without significance by haloperidol which did not itself augment the retching. These results imply that the retching elicited by alpha-NOAA or Protoveratrine A seems to involve at least in part an inhibition of dopaminergic neuron activity.|
J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1959, 11(S1):176–84.
|THE EFFECT OF PROTOVERATRINE A ON POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM ION MOVEMENTS IN MUSCLE AND NERVE.[Reference: WebLink]|
|The effects of Protoveratrine A on the efflux of potassium ions (K+) from frog and rat skeletal muscle and the isolated electrically driven rat heart have been studied. No effect was seen upon the rate of efflux from skeletal muscle but that from the heart was increased. Protoveratrine A increases K+ uptake from frog skeletal muscle and causes this tissue to release more calcium (Ca++). There was no increase in Ca++ release from lobster nerve treated with Protoveratrine A. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.|
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice, 2010, 28(5):348-51.
|Effects of Protoveratrine A on cardiovascular and respiratory system in rats.[Reference: WebLink]|
|To observe the effects of Protoveratrine A(PA) on cardiovascular and respiratory system in rats.Methods The experimental rats(n=40,m|