|Drug Metab Dispos. 2018 Jun;46(6):823-834. |
|Pharmacokinetics-Based Identification of Potential Therapeutic Phthalides from XueBiJing, a Chinese Herbal Injection Used in Sepsis Management.[Pubmed: 29523601 ]|
|XueBiJing, an injectable five-herb preparation, has been incorporated into routine sepsis care in China. Phthalides, originating from XueBiJing's component herbs Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizomes and Angelica sinensis roots, are believed to contribute to its therapeutic effects due to their presence in the preparation and antisepsis-related properties.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
This investigation aimed to identify potential therapeutic phthalides that are bioavailable to act on XueBiJing's therapeutic targets and that could serve as pharmacokinetic markers to supplement classic biomarkers for sepsis care. Among 10 phthalides detected in XueBiJing, senkyunolides I and G were the major circulating phthalides in human subjects, but their different pharmacokinetics might influence their contribution to XueBiJing's therapeutic action. Senkyunolide I exhibited a large distribution volume (1.32 l/kg) and was moderately bound in plasma (54% unbound), whereas Senkyunolide G exhibited a small distribution volume (0.10 l/kg) and was extensively bound in plasma (3% unbound). Clearance of senkyunolide I from the systemic circulation was governed by UGT2B15-mediated hepatic glucuronidation; the resulting electrophilic glucuronides were conjugated with glutathione in the liver. Senkyunolide G was selectively bound to albumin (99%) in human plasma.
To our knowledge, the human pharmacokinetic data of XueBiJing's phthalides are reported here for the first time.
Based on this investigation and such investigations of the other component herbs, follow-up pharmacodynamic assessments of bioavailable herbal compounds are planned to elucidate XueBiJing's chemical basis responsible for its therapeutic action. Senkyunolides I and G, having the preceding disposition characteristics that could be detectably altered by septic pathophysiology, could serve as pharmacokinetic markers for sepsis care.
|Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2016 Apr;41(7):1178-1182. |
|Absorption and metabolism of Chuanxiong Rhizoma decoction with multi-component sequential metabolism method.[Pubmed: 28879727]|
|The multiple components in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMS) will experience complex absorption and metabolism before entering the blood system. Previous studies often lay emphasis on the components in blood. However, the dynamic and sequential absorption and metabolism process following multi-component oral administration has not been studied.|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this study, the in situ closed-loop method combined with LC-MS techniques were employed to study the sequential process of Chuanxiong Rhizoma decoction (RCD). A total of 14 major components were identified in RCD. Among them, ferulic acid, senkyunolide J, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide F, Senkyunolide G, and butylidenephthalide were detected in all of the samples, indicating that the six components could be absorbed into blood in prototype. Butylphthalide, E-ligustilide, Z-ligustilide, cnidilide, senkyunolide A and senkyunolide Q were not detected in all the samples, suggesting that the six components may not be absorbed or metabolized before entering the hepatic portal vein. Senkyunolide H could be metabolized by the liver, while senkyunolide M could be metabolized by both liver and intestinal flora.
This study clearly demonstrated the changes in the absorption and metabolism process following multi-component oral administration of RCD, so as to convert the static multi-component absorption process into a comprehensive dynamic and continuous absorption and metabolism process.