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    Theophylline
    Information
    CAS No. 58-55-9 Price $30 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99768Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight180.16Type of CompoundAlkaloids
    FormulaC7H8N4O2Physical DescriptionWhite cryst.
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Theophylline is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor and nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, which is the most widely used anti-asthma drug worldwide and is classified as a bronchodilator. It has antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions, it also can antagonize flurazepam-induced depression of cerebral cortical neurons.
    Targets: gp120/CD4 | TNF-α | IL Receptor | cAMP | HDAC
    In vitro:
    Eur J Pharm Sci. 2015 May 6.
    The formulation of a pressurized metered dose inhaler containing theophylline for inhalation.[Pubmed: 25956075]
    Theophylline (TP) is a bronchodilator used orally to treat Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) that has been associated with multiple side effects, tempering its present use. This study aims to improve COPD treatment by creating a low-dose pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) inhalable formulation of Theophylline.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Aerosol performance was assessed using Andersen Cascade Impaction (ACI). Solubility of Theophylline in HFA 134/ethanol mixture was measured and morphology of the particles analyzed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Calu-3 cell viability, epithelial cell transport and inflammatory-response assays were conducted to study the impact of the formulation on lung epithelial cells. The mass deposition profile of the formulation showed an emitted dose of 250.04±14.48μg per 5 actuations, achieving the designed nominal dose (50μg/dose). SEM showed that the emitted particles were hollow with spherical morphology. Approximately 98% of Theophylline was transported across Calu-3 epithelial cells and the concentration of interleukin-8 secreted from Calu-3 cells following stimulation with tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) resulted in significantly lower level of interleukin-8 released from the cells pre-treated with Theophylline (1.92±0.77ngml-1 Theophylline treated vs. 8.83±2.05ngml-1 TNF-α stimulated, respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The solution pMDI formulation of Theophylline developed in present study was shown to be suitable for inhalation and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects at low doses in Calu-3 cell model.
    In vivo:
    J Exp Med. 2004 Sep 6; 200(5): 689–95.
    Theophylline Restores Histone Deacetylase Activity and Steroid Responses in COPD Macrophages[Pubmed: 15337792]
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs with little or no response to glucocorticoids and a high level of oxidative stress. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is reduced in cells of cigarette smokers, and low concentrations of Theophylline can increase HDAC activity.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    We measured the effect of Theophylline on HDAC activity and inflammatory gene expression in alveolar macrophages (AM) from patients with COPD. AM from normal smokers showed a decrease in HDAC activity compared with normal control subjects, and this was further reduced in COPD patients (51% decrease, P < 0.01). COPD AMs also showed increased basal release of IL-8 and TNF-α, which was poorly suppressed by dexamethasone. Theophylline induced a sixfold increase in HDAC activity in COPD AM lysates and significantly enhanced dexamethasone suppression of induced IL-8 release, an effect that was blocked by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Therefore, Theophylline might restore steroid responsiveness in COPD patients.
    J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 18.
    Comparative study of the efficacy and safety of theophylline and doxofylline in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[Pubmed: 25894641]
    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the major obstructive disorders that may contribute to the severity in individual patients. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of Theophylline and doxofylline in patients with bronchial asthma and COPD.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    A total of 60 patients, 30 each with bronchial asthma and COPD, were enrolled for the study. Each group of 30 patients received standard treatment for asthma and COPD. Each group was again subdivided into two with 15 patients each, who received Theophylline or doxofylline in addition to standard therapy, for a period of 2 months. Each patient was followed up fortnightly for the assessment of efficacy parameters using a pulmonary function test (PFT), clinical symptoms and emergency drug use, and safety was assessed by recording adverse drug reactions. Both Theophylline and doxofylline produced enhancements in PFT at different time intervals in both asthma and COPD patients. The maximum beneficial effects were seen at 6 weeks for asthma patients and at 8 weeks for COPD patients for both Theophylline and doxofylline.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The comparative study showed that doxofylline was more effective as evidenced by improvement in PFT as well as clinical symptoms, and reduced incidence of adverse effects and emergency bronchodilator use.
    Theophylline Description
    Source: The leaves of Black tea.
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 5.5506 mL 27.7531 mL 55.5062 mL 111.0124 mL 138.7655 mL
    5 mM 1.1101 mL 5.5506 mL 11.1012 mL 22.2025 mL 27.7531 mL
    10 mM 0.5551 mL 2.7753 mL 5.5506 mL 11.1012 mL 13.8766 mL
    50 mM 0.111 mL 0.5551 mL 1.1101 mL 2.2202 mL 2.7753 mL
    100 mM 0.0555 mL 0.2775 mL 0.5551 mL 1.1101 mL 1.3877 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Cell Research:
    J Clin Invest. 1997 Oct 1;100(7):1677-84.
    Theophylline accelerates human granulocyte apoptosis not via phosphodiesterase inhibition.[Pubmed: 9312165 ]
    Theophylline, in addition to its bronchodilator effect, is reported to have an antiinflammatory action that may account for its clinical effectiveness in the reduction of inflammatory cells in the airway. In bronchial asthma, such inflammatory cytokines as GM-CSF and IL-5 are upregulated and have been proposed to cause granulocyte infiltration (neutrophils and eosinophils) in the airway by inhibition of granulocyte apoptosis.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    We examined the abilities of Theophylline to counteract the prolongation of human granulocyte survival caused by cytokines. Theophylline was shown to shorten granulocyte survival in a dose-dependent manner. Upon incubation with a therapeutical concentration of Theophylline (0.1 mM; 18 microg/ml), percentages of GM-CSF (10 ng/ml)-induced delayed apoptosis increased from 18+/-2% to 38+/-3% (p < 0.02) in neutrophils and from 21+/-2% to 35+/-2% (p < 0.02; 24-h incubation) in eosinophils. The percentage of IL-5 (5 ng/ml)-induced delayed eosinophil apoptosis also increased from 22+/-4% to 33+/-2% (P < 0. 05). In contrast, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-increasing agents (3-isobutylmethylxanthine, dibutyryl cAMP, and rolipram) inhibited granulocyte apoptosis in the control and anti-Fas antibody-treated cells. In eosinophils, the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased after incubation with Theophylline.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    These findings suggest that Theophylline accelerates granulocyte apoptosis, which may play an essential role in inflammation, and controls granulocyte longevity regardless of the elevation of intracellular cAMP levels.
    Animal Research:
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1979 Aug;57(8):917-20.
    Theophylline antagonizes flurazepam-induced depression of cerebral cortical neurons.[Pubmed: 497904]
    Intravenously administered Theophylline (50--100 mg/kg) antagonized the depressant actions of adenosine and flurazepam on rat cerebral cortical neurons. When assessed in conjunction with recent reports that Theophylline competes with diazepam for binding sites in brain tissue, this finding suggests that one action of the benzodiazepines may be exerted at a purinergic receptor associated with central neurons.