|Description:||1. Trans-Caryophyllene has a novel role in regulating GSIS in pancreatic β-cells.|
2. Trans-Caryophyllene is PPAR-α agonist thus regulates cellular lipid metabolism in PPAR-α dependent manners.
3. Trans-Caryophyllene has neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders, such as chemical induced seizure and brain damage.
4. Trans-Caryophyllene reduces both acute and chronic pain in mice, which may be mediated through the opioid and endocannabinoid systems.
5. Trans-Caryophyllene suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory response through inhibition of NF-κB activation in microglia, suggests be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation.
|Targets:||PPAR | IL Receptor | TNF-α | SOD | ROS | NF-kB|
|Source:||The seeds of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata|
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||4.8933 mL||24.4666 mL||48.9333 mL||97.8665 mL||122.3331 mL|
|5 mM||0.9787 mL||4.8933 mL||9.7867 mL||19.5733 mL||24.4666 mL|
|10 mM||0.4893 mL||2.4467 mL||4.8933 mL||9.7867 mL||12.2333 mL|
|50 mM||0.0979 mL||0.4893 mL||0.9787 mL||1.9573 mL||2.4467 mL|
|100 mM||0.0489 mL||0.2447 mL||0.4893 mL||0.9787 mL||1.2233 mL|
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Jul 15;24(14):3168-74.
|trans-Caryophyllene is a natural agonistic ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.[Pubmed: 24856059]|
|Intake of dietary aroma compounds may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that trans-Caryophyllene, a flavor compound in plant foods and teas, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α through direct interaction with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR-α. The agonistic activity of trans-Caryophyllene was investigated by the luciferase reporter assay, surface plasmon resonance, and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Following the stimulation of cells with trans-Caryophyllene, intracellular triglyceride concentrations were significantly reduced by 17%, and hepatic fatty acid uptake was significantly increased by 31%. The rate of fatty acid oxidation was also significantly increased. The expressions of PPAR-α and its target genes and proteins in fatty acid uptake and oxidation were significantly up-regulated as well. In HepG2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA of PPAR-α, the effects of trans-Caryophyllene on PPAR-α responsive gene expressions, intracellular triglyceride, fatty acid uptake and oxidation were disappeared. These results indicate that the aroma compound, trans-Caryophyllene, is PPAR-α agonist thus regulates cellular lipid metabolism in PPAR-α dependent manners.|
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Feb 21;444(4):451-4.
|A role for trans-caryophyllene in the moderation of insulin secretion.[Pubmed: 24486541]|
|Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is essential for the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis and its impairment is a key element in the failure of β-cells in type 2 diabetes. trans-Caryophyllene (TC), an important constituent of the essential oil of several species of plants, has been reported to activate the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). The effects of TC on GSIS are still unknown. Our results demonstrate that administration of trans-Caryophyllene in MIN6 cells promotes GSIS in a dose dependent manner. However, inhibition of CB2R by a specific inhibitor or specific RNA interference abolished the effects of trans-Caryophyllene on GSIS, which suggests that the effects of trans-Caryophyllene on GSIS are dependent on activation of CB2R. Further study demonstrated that treatment with trans-Caryophyllene leads to the activation of small G protein Arf6 as well as Rac1 and Cdc42. Importantly, Arf6 silencing abolished the effects of trans-Caryophyllene on GSIS, which suggests that Arf6 participates in mediating the effects of trans-Caryophyllene on GSIS. We conclude from these data that trans-Caryophyllene has a novel role in regulating GSIS in pancreatic β-cells.|
Phytomedicine. 2014 Feb 15;21(3):356-62.
|The oral administration of trans-caryophyllene attenuates acute and chronic pain in mice.[Pubmed: 24055516]|
|trans-Caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene present in many medicinal plants' essential oils, such as Ocimum gratissimum and Cannabis sativa. In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of trans-Caryophyllene in murine models of acute and chronic pain and the involvement of trans-Caryophyllene in the opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Acute pain was determined using the hot plate test (thermal nociception) and the formalin test (inflammatory pain). The chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve induced hypernociception was measured by the hot plate and von Frey tests. To elucidate the mechanism of action, mice were pre-treated with naloxone or AM630 30 min before the trans-Caryophyllene treatment. Afterwards, thermal nociception was evaluated. The levels of IL-1β were measured in CCI-mice by ELISA. trans-Caryophyllene administration significantly minimized the pain in both the acute and chronic pain models. The antinociceptive effect observed during the hot plate test was reversed by naloxone and AM630, indicating the participation of both the opioid and endocannabinoid system. trans-Caryophyllene treatment also decreased the IL-1β levels. These results demonstrate that trans-Caryophyllene reduced both acute and chronic pain in mice, which may be mediated through the opioid and endocannabinoid systems.|
Neurochem Res. 2015 Jan;40(1):118-23.
|Neuroprotective effects of trans-caryophyllene against kainic acid induced seizure activity and oxidative stress in mice.[Pubmed: 25417010]|
|trans-Caryophyllene (TC), a component of essential oil found in many flowering plants, has shown its neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders. However, the effects of trans-Caryophyllene on epilepsy haven't been reported before. In this study, we investigated the effect of trans-Caryophyllene on kainic acid-induced seizure activity caused by oxidative stress and pro-inflammation. We found that trans-Caryophyllene pretreatment significantly decreased seizure activity score compared to kainic acid treated group. Importantly, trans-Caryophyllene pretreatment leads to lowering the mortality in kainic acid treated mice. In addition, trans-Caryophyllene was found to significantly inhibit KA-induced generation of malondialdehyde. trans-Caryophyllene pretreatment also preserved the activity of GPx, SOD, and CAT. Notably, our data shows that an important property of trans-Caryophyllene is its capacity to exert cerebral anti-inflammatory effects by mitigating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. These data suggest that trans-Caryophyllene has a potential protective effect on chemical induced seizure and brain damage.|
J Mol Neurosci. 2014 Sep;54(1):41-8.
|Trans-caryophyllene suppresses hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses by inhibiting NF-κB activation in microglia.[Pubmed: 24488604]|
|trans-Caryophyllene (TC), may have protective effects against hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, trans-Caryophyllene was found to significantly inhibit hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity as well as the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, through activation of BV2 microglia following hypoxic exposure (1 % O2, 24 h). Furthermore, trans-Caryophyllene significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia. Importantly, trans-Caryophyllene 's effects on inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines can be abolished by muting the CB2R using small RNA interference. These observations indicate that trans-Caryophyllene suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory response through inhibition of NF-κB activation in microglia. Therefore, trans-Caryophyllene may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation.|