|Fitoterapia. 2012 Mar;83(2):408-14. |
|Ganoderic acid DM, a natural triterpenoid, induces DNA damage, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.[Pubmed: 22178684]|
|Ganoderic acid DM (GADM) is a triterpenoid isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known edible medicinal mushroom. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In the present study, we found that GADM effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which was much stronger than that of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. GADM both concentration- and time-dependently mediated G1 cell cycle arrest and significantly decreased the protein level of CDK2, CDK6, cycle D1, p-Rb and c-Myc in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, GADM obviously induced DNA fragmentation and cleavage of PARP which are the characteristics of apoptosis and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in MCF-7 cells. Besides, we also showed that GADM elicited DNA damage as measured by comet assay which is a sensitive method for DNA damage detection. γ-H2AX, a marker of DNA damage, was also slightly up-regulated after treated with GADM for 6h, suggesting that the G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by GADM may be partially resulted from GADM-induced DNA damage.
These results have advanced our current understandings of the anti-cancer mechanisms of GADM.
|Open Prost Cancer J. 2010 Jan 1;3:78-85. |
|Ganoderic Acid DM: An Alternative Agent for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer.[Pubmed: 24790681]|
|Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the western world. While traditional therapies are effective at clearing early stage cancer, they often fail to treat late stage metastatic disease. Thus, an effective therapy that targets prostate tumor growth and metastasis is desired for alleviating the disease and improving patient outcomes. Natural extracts have been the focus of recent investigation, particularly those with reduced cellular toxicity to healthy tissue. In this review, we discuss one potential candidate, ganoderic acid, an extract from the Ganoderma lucidum mushroom that has been tested in multiple cancer models. Interestingly, Ganoderic acid DM (GA-DM) has shown toxicity to both androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cells with reduced osteoclastogenesis in late stage metastatic disease. |
This review will discuss the current knowledge on this Ganoderic acid DM extract and the potential benefit in treating advanced prostate cancer. We will also provide an overview on the targeted delivery of Ganoderic acid DM through nanoparticles that would reduce bystander toxicity and improve the drug's effectiveness. An improved understanding of this drug and its uses will advance the field of natural chemotherapeutics, particularly in treating advanced prostate cancer.
|Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Apr 15;19(8):2154-7. |
|Ganoderic acid DM: anti-androgenic osteoclastogenesis inhibitor.[Pubmed: 19289282]|
|Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in Western countries, with a high incidence of bone metastasis. Ganoderic acid DM, with 5alpha-reductase inhibitory and androgen receptor (AR) binding activity, isolated from the ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, can inhibit prostate cancer cell growth and block osteoclastogenesis.|