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    Natural Products
    Guanine
    Guanine
    Information
    CAS No. 73-40-5 Price $30 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN70194Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight151.1Type of CompoundAlkaloids
    FormulaC5H5N5OPhysical DescriptionPowder
    Download     COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison
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    According to end customer requirements, ChemFaces provide solvent format. This solvent format of product intended use: Signaling Inhibitors, Biological activities or Pharmacological activities.
    Size /Price /Stock 10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO / $7.0 / In-stock
    Other Packaging *Packaging according to customer requirements(100uL/well, 200uL/well and more), and Container use Storage Tube With Screw Cap
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    Related Screening Libraries
    Size /Price /Stock 10 mM * 100 uL in DMSO / Inquiry / In-stock
    10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO / Inquiry / In-stock
    Related Libraries
  • Alkaloids Compound Library
  • Biological Activity
    Description: Guanosine analogs have antiviral activities.
    In vitro:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2003,100(11):6646-6651.
    Molecular basis for the immunostimulatory activity of guanine nucleoside analogs: activation of Toll-like receptor 7.[Reference: WebLink]
    Certain C8-substituted and N7, C8-disubstituted Guanine ribonucleosides comprise a class of small molecules with immunostimulatory activity. In a variety of animal models, these agents stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses. The antiviral actions of these guanosine analogs have been attributed to their ability to induce type I IFNs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the guanosine analogs potentiate immune responses are not known.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Here, we report that several guanosine analogs activate Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). 7-Thia-8-oxoguanosine, 7-deazaguanosine, and related guanosine analogs activated mouse immune cells in a manner analogous to known TLR ligands, inducing cytokine production in mouse splenocytes (IL-6 and IL-12, type I and II IFNs), bone marrow-derived macrophages (IL-6 and IL-12), and in human peripheral blood leukocytes (type I IFNs, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-12). The guanosine congeners also up-regulated costimulatory molecules and MHC I/II in dendritic cells. Genetic complementation studies in human embryonic kidney 293 cells confirmed that the guanosine analogs activate cells exclusively via TLR7. The stimulation of TLR7 by the guanosine analogs in human cells appears to require endosomal maturation because inhibition of this process with chloroquine significantly reduced the downstream activation of NF-kappaB. However, TLR8 activation by R-848 and TLR2 activation by [S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2-RS)-propyl]-N-palmitoyl-R-Cys-S-Ser-Lys4-OH, trihydrochloride)] were not inhibited by chloroquine, whereas TLR9 activation by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides was abolished. In summary, we present evidence that guanosine analogs activate immune cells via TLR7 by a pathway that requires endosomal maturation.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Thus, the B cell-stimulating and antiviral activities of the guanosine analogs may be explained by their TLR7-activating capacity.
    In vivo:
    N Engl J Med, 1997, 337(24):1720-1725.
    The association of atopy with a gain-of-function mutation in the alpha subunit of the interleukin-4 receptor.[Reference: WebLink]
    Atopic diseases are very common, and atopy has a strong genetic predisposition.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing, we searched for mutations in the a subunit of the interleukin-4 receptor that would predispose persons to atopy. We examined the prevalence of the alleles among patients with allergic inflammatory disorders and among 50 prospectively recruited adults. Subjects with atopy were identified on the basis of an elevated serum IgE level (> or = 95 IU per milliliter) or a positive radioimmunosorbent test in response to standard inhalant allergens. The signaling function of mutant interleukin-4 receptor a was examined by flow cytometry, binding assays, and immunoblotting.A novel interleukin-4 receptor alpha allele was identified in which Guanine was substituted for adenine at nucleotide 1902, causing a change from glutamine to arginine at position 576 (R576) in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha protein. The R576 allele was common among patients with allergic inflammatory disorders (found in 3 of 3 patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome and 4 of 7 patients with severe atopic dermatitis) and among the 50 prospectively recruited adults (found in 13 of 20 subjects with atopy and 5 of 30 without atopy; P=0.001; relative risk of atopy among those with a mutant allele, 9.3).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The R576 allele was associated with higher levels of expression of CD23 by interleukin-4 than the wild-type allele. This enhanced signaling was associated with a change in the binding specificity of the adjacent tyrosine residue at position 575 to signal-transducing molecules.The R576 allele of interleukin-4 receptor alpha is strongly associated with atopy. This mutation may predispose persons to allergic diseases by altering the signaling function of the receptor.
    Guanine Description
    Source: From yeasts.
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Recently, ChemFaces products have been cited in many studies from excellent and top scientific journals

    Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):249-261.e12.
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    IF=36.216(2019)

    PMID: 29328914

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    IF=13.903(2019)

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    Sci Adv. 2018 Oct 24;4(10): eaat6994.
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    IF=12.804(2019)

    PMID: 30417089
    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 6.6181 mL 33.0907 mL 66.1813 mL 132.3627 mL 165.4533 mL
    5 mM 1.3236 mL 6.6181 mL 13.2363 mL 26.4725 mL 33.0907 mL
    10 mM 0.6618 mL 3.3091 mL 6.6181 mL 13.2363 mL 16.5453 mL
    50 mM 0.1324 mL 0.6618 mL 1.3236 mL 2.6473 mL 3.3091 mL
    100 mM 0.0662 mL 0.3309 mL 0.6618 mL 1.3236 mL 1.6545 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Structure Identification:
    Journal of microbiological methods, 1995, 22(1):1-10.
    HPLC measurement of guanine for the determination of nucleic acids (RNA) in yeasts.[Reference: WebLink]

    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    A method based upon the assay of Guanine is described for the determination of nucleic acid content in yeasts. Total nucleic acids are hydrolysed by hot perchloric acid and the resultant quantitative release of Guanine is measured by reverse-phase HPLC. Due to the high RNA:DNA ratio in yeasts, the method can be used to estimate the RNA concentration in yeasts.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The method is particularly suited for kinetic studies of the release of RNA from yeast during autolysis where endogenous enzymic degradation of intracellular RNA reduces the applicability of other methods.