|Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:624375. |
|Insulin-Mimetic Action of Rhoifolin and Cosmosiin Isolated from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Leaves: Enhanced Adiponectin Secretion and Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Cells.[Pubmed: 20008903]|
|Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (red wendun) leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting these actions and its active compounds. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Two flavone glycosides, Rhoifolin and cosmosiin were isolated for the first time from red wendun leaves and, identified these leaves are rich source for Rhoifolin (1.1%, w/w). In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Rhoifolin and cosmosiin showed dose-dependent response in concentration range of o.oo1-5 μM and 1-20 μM, respectively, in biological studies beneficial to diabetes. Particularly, Rhoifolin and cosmosiin at 0.5 and 20 μM, respectively showed nearly similar response to that 10 nM of insulin, on adiponectin secretion level. Furthermore, 5 μM of Rhoifolin and 20 μM of cosmosiin showed equal potential with 10 nM of insulin to increase the phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β, in addition to their positive effect on GLUT4 translocation.
These findings indicate that Rhoifolin and cosmosiin from red wendun leaves may be beneficial for diabetic complications through their enhanced adiponectin secretion, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β and GLUT4 translocation.
|Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Aug;39(16):3094-101. |
|[Chemical constituents from Callicarpa nudiflora and their cytotoxic activities].[Pubmed: 25509294]|
|The chemical consitituents from cytotoxic fraction of the Callicarpa nudiflora extract were isolated and purified by a combination of HP-20 macroporous resin, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data and comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported data. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. The 50% and 70% EtOH elutions of EtOH-extract showed significant cytotoxic activities, leading to the isolation of twelve compounds, which were identified as luteoloside(1), lutedin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside(2), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside(3), lutedin-7-O-neohesperidoside(4), Rhoifolin (5), luteolin-7, 4'-di-O-glucoside (6), forsythoside B (7), acteoside (8), alyssonoside (9), catalpol(10), nudifloside(11), and leonuride(12). Compounds 3-6, 10 and 12 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and compound 9 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that flavonoids 1-6, in various concentrations, showed monolithic proliferation inhibitory activities against Hela, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. Compounds 3, 5 and iridoid glycoside 11 possessed higher cytotoxicacivities.
In short, flavonoids are the main components of cytotoxic extract from C. nudiflora, while phenylethanoid glycosides are the predominant ingredient but inactive to cancer cell lines. In addition, the minor iridoid glycoside expressed weak cytotoxic activity.
|Pharmacology & Clinics of Chinese Materia Medica, 2012(6):18-20. |
|Study on the protective effect of rhoifolin against hepatic injury induced by triptolide[Reference: WebLink]|
| Study on the protective effect of Rhoifolin against hepatic injury induced by triptolide.|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The protective effects of Rhoifolin at the concentration of 75,150,300μg/ml,on the in vitro damage of human L02 liver cells injured by triptolide at the concentration of 40μg/ml were evaluated with cell survival rates,which were determined by MTT assay.Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups as follows: The drug groups mice were treated with Rhoifolin for six day at the dose of 140,70,35mg/kg,respectively.The normal control group and the model control group took equivalent amount of distilled water by the same route.And mice in the positive control group were treated with 70mg/kg diammonium glycyrrhizinate.After the last administration,all groups except the normal control were administered with triptolide at dose of 0.625mg/kg by gavage to induce acute hepatic injury.Thereafter,the contents of ALT,AST in serum,the activities of SOD,MDA,GSH-Px and GST in the liver were measured and the hepatic histological changes were observed by optical microscope. The cell survival rates of human L02 liver cells injured by triptolide and then treated with Rhoifolin at the concentration of 75,150,300μg/ml were significantly increased.The contents of ALT,AST in serum were significantly decreased,the content of MDA in the liver was also significantly lowered,and the activities of SOD,MDA,GSH-Px and GST in liver were significantly improved after preventive treatment with Rhoifolin at the dose of 140,70,35mg/kg.Rhoifolin can ameliorated the hepatic pathological changes.
The protective effect of Rhoifolin against hepatic injury induced by triptolide was significant in vitro and in vivo.
| J. Appl. Pharmaceut. Sci., 2012, 2(8):74-9. |
|Anti-inflammatory effect of Apigenin-7-neohesperidoside (Rhoifolin) in carrageenin-induced rat edema model[Reference: WebLink]|
|Flavonoids are normal constituents of the human diet and are known for a variety of biological activities. They have been reported to bring benefits in lowering inflammation and oxidative stress.|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The present investigation was performed first, to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Rhoifolin and second, to search for the possible contributing mechanisms for this hypothesized effect. Rhoifolin caused a time and reverse dose dependent reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema. Following 4 hr of treatment, Rhoifolin at doses 2.5, 25 & 250 mg/kg caused a significant inhibition of rat paw edema volume by 14, 25 & 45 % respectively in comparison to the control group (74%). In addition to significantly abrogating prostaglandin E2 level, increasing doses of Rhoifolin significantly diminished the TNF-a release in the inflammatory exudates. In the same animal model, Rhoifolin increased the total antioxidant capacity in a reverse dose order, with the highest capacity obtained with the lowest dose tested.
This study demonstrates for the first time the effectiveness.