||Taurine, a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Taurine can effectively promote chondrocyte growth and enhance accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes, it is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes, thus, taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.Taurine also can attenuate nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. |
|Tohoku J Exp Med. 2015;235(3):201-13. |
|Chondroprotective effects of taurine in primary cultures of human articular chondrocytes.[Pubmed: 25765089]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
We explored the effect of Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) on proliferation and phenotype maintenance of human articular chondrocytes by analyzing the cell proliferation, morphology, viability, and expression of cartilage specific mRNAs and proteins. Primary chondrocytes were isolated from human articular cartilage tissues. Results showed that Taurine effectively promoted chondrocyte growth and enhanced accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes. Moreover, Taurine exposure caused significant increases in the relative expression levels of mRNAs for cartilage specific markers, including aggrecan, collagen type II and SOX9. Aggrecan is a cartilage-specific proteoglycan, and SOX9 is a chondrogenic transcription factor. In contrast, the mRNA expression of collagen type I, a marker for chondrocyte dedifferentiation, was significantly decreased in cells treated with Taurine, indicating that Taurine inhibits the chondrocyte dedifferentiation.
This study reveals that Taurine is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes. Thus, Taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.
|Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015 Feb 1;282(3):285-96. |
|Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.[Pubmed: 25542992]|
|Taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of Taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), Taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of Taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that Taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, Taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by Taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay).
In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, Taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats.
|Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Feb 15;308(4):G277-86. |
|Estradiol decreases taurine level by reducing cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase via the estrogen receptor-α in female mice liver.[Pubmed: 25394658]|
|Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) and cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) are two rate-limiting enzymes in Taurine de novo synthesis, and their expressions are associated with estrogen concentration.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The present study was designed to determine the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E₂) and Taurine in female mice liver. We initially observed the mice had lower levels of CSAD, CDO, and Taurine during estrus than diestrus. We then, respectively, treated the ovariectomized mice, the cultured hepatocytes, and Hep G2 cells with different doses of E₂, and the CSAD and CDO expressions and Taurine levels were analyzed. The results showed that E₂ decreased Taurine level in the serum and the cultured cells by inhibiting CSAD and CDO expressions. Furthermore, we identified the molecular receptor types through which E₂ plays its role in regulating Taurine synthesis, and our results showed that estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was much higher than estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) in the liver and hepatocytes, and the inhibiting effects of E₂ on CSAD, CDO, and Taurine level were partially abrogated in the ICI-182,780-pretreated liver and hepatocytes, and in ERα knockout mice.
These results indicate that estradiol decreases Taurine content by reducing Taurine biosynthetic enzyme expression in mice liver.