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Univ. of Limpopo2016Int J Mol Sci.2015 Aug 7;16(8):18396-411.?Sci Rep. Jan. 2018New Zealand Journal of Forestry Sci.2014, 44:17Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;
Molecules. 2017 Feb 8;International Journal of Mol. Med.2015 Mar 6.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2017:7383104J Agric Food Chem.2018 Jan 10;Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 12;
Br J Pharmacol.2018 Mar;J. of The Korean Society of Food CultureApr.2017;Journal of Agricultural Science2015 Sep 15Journal of Functional FoodsFeb. 2018;
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||Andrographolide is an antiinflammatory, antiviral, anti-cancer , hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, hypotensive and antiatherosclerotic drug, it can cure hyperpigmentation disorders. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues.Andrographolide has potential as a leading compound in the prevention or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance, can ameliorate lipid metabolism and improve glucose use in mice with HFD-induced obesity.
||Wnt/β-catenin | PKC | GSK-3 | Akt | PI3K | TGF-β/Smad | HO-1 | Nrf2 | ERK | JNK | gp120/CD4 | HIV | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | PAFR | AP-1 | ROS | Calcium Channel|
|J Dermatol Sci. 2015 Jul;79(1):74-83. |
|Andrographolide suppresses melanin synthesis through Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signal pathway.[Pubmed: 25869056]|
|Tyrosinase (TYR) is the key enzyme controlling the production of melanin. Very few papers have reported that Andrographolide can inhibit melanin content. To investigate the effects of Andrographolide on melanin synthesis. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Cell viability, melanin content, TYR activity, transcriptional and protein expression levels of TYR family and other kinds of proteins involved in melanogenesis were measured after the treatments of Andrographolide. It was found that Andrographolide decreased melanin content, TYR activity and transcriptional and protein expression of TYR family and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F10 melanoma cells. Data showed Andrographolide also decreased melanin content and TYR content in ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced brown guinea pigs. Moreover, we found that melanin content and TYR activity were effectively inhibited in Human Epidermis Melanocyte (HEM) treated with Andrographolide at the medium concentrations without apparent effect on cell viability. Results in experiments treated with MG-132 or cycloheximide (CHX) showed that Andrographolide lowered the content of β-catenin in cell nucleus resulting from accelerating the degradation of β-catenin. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and Akt decreased simultaneously. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO, inhibitor of GSK3β) and insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1, activator of Akt) could reverse the decline of β-catenin in B16F10 cells induced by Andrographolide.
These results demonstrate that Andrographolide can effectively suppress melanin content and TYR activity in B16F10 cells, HEM cells and UVB-induced brown guinea pig skin by decreasing phosphorylation of GSK3β dependent on Akt, promoting the degradation of β-catenin, inhibiting β-catenin into the nucleus and decreasing the expression of MITF and TYR family. Data indicate that Andrographolide may be a potential whiting agent which can have great market in cosmetics and in clinical such as curing hyperpigmentation disorders.
|Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 25;632(1-3):23-32. |
|Inhibitory effects of andrographolide on migration and invasion in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells via down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.[Pubmed: 20097193 ]|
|Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancers worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises more than 80% of lung cancer cases. Treatment options for patients with advanced NSCLC have evolved in the last decade with the advent of novel biological agents. Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to have the potential to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In order to understand the anti-cancer properties of Andrographolide, we examined its effect on migration and invasion in human NSCLC A549 cells. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that Andrographolide inhibited dose-dependently the migration and invasion of A549 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that the effect of Andrographolide in A549 cells might be mediated via sustained inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal involved in the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our results showed that Andrographolide exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-7, but not MMP-2 or MMP-9. The Andrographolide-inhibited MMP-7 expression or activity appeared to occur via activator protein-1 (AP-1) because of its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andrographolide. Additionally, the transfection of Akt over-expression vector (Akt1 cDNA) to A549 cells could result in an increase expression of MMP-7 concomitantly with a marked induction on cell invasion.
These findings suggested that the inhibition on MMP-7 expression by Andrographolide may be through suppression on PI3K/Akt/AP-1 signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells.
|J Ethnopharmacol. 1993 Oct;40(2):131-6. |
|Andrographolide protects rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage.[Pubmed: 8133653]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Andrographolide, the active constituent isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata, showed a significant dose dependent (0.75-12 mg/kg p.o. x 7) protective activity against paracetamol-induced toxicity on ex vivo preparation of isolated rat hepatocytes. It significantly increased the percent viability of the hepatocytes as tested by trypan blue exclusion and oxygen uptake tests. It completely antagonized the toxic effects of paracetamol on certain enzymes (GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase) in serum as well as in isolated hepatic cells.
Andrographolide was found to be more potent than silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent.
|Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014 Oct 1;280(1):1-9. |
|Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.[Pubmed: 25110055]|
|Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of Andrographolide in rats and studied whether Andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of Andrographolide was 1μM which peaked at 30min. The bioavailability of Andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50mg/kg Andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that Andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with Andrographolide (p<0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that Andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day Andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl4-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p<0.05).
These results suggest that Andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues.
|Phytother Res. 2000 Aug;14(5):333-8. |
|A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteers.[Pubmed: 10925397]|
|A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers.|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4(+) lymphocyte levels. No subjects used antiretroviral medications during the trial. Those with liver or renal abnormalities were excluded. The planned regimen was 5 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, escalating to 10 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, and to 20 mg/kg bodyweight for a final 3 weeks. The trial was interrupted at 6 weeks due to adverse events including an anaphylactic reaction in one patient. All adverse events had resolved by the end of observation. A significant rise in the mean CD4(+) lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg Andrographolide (from a baseline of 405 cells/mm(3) to 501 cells/mm(3); p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial. Andrographolide may inhibit HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4(+) lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals.
||The herbs of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees
||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
Recent ChemFaces New Products and Compounds
Recently, ChemFaces products have been cited in many studies from excellent and top scientific journals
Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):249-261.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.12.019.PMID: 29328914
Mol Cell. 2017 Nov 16;68(4):673-685.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.10.022.PMID: 29149595
Scientific Reports 2017 Dec 11;7(1):17332.doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17427-6.PMID: 29230013
Molecules. 2017 Oct 27;22(11). pii: E1829.doi: 10.3390/molecules22111829.PMID: 29077044
J Cell Biochem. 2018 Feb;119(2):2231-2239.doi: 10.1002/jcb.26385. PMID: 28857247
Phytomedicine. 2018 Feb 1;40:37-47. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.030PMID: 29496173
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|Exp Eye Res. 2014 Nov;128:23-6. |
|Andrographolide reduces proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway.[Pubmed: 25220506]|
|Lens epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation are involved in the development of subcapsular cataracts and postoperative capsular opacification (PCO). PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells. Andrographolide is the main bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata and is known to possess anti-proliferative and anti-migratory activities.|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Andrographolide on proliferation and migration induced by growth factors (TGF-β and bFGF) in the lens epithelial cell line, FHL 124. We have also evaluated the role of the PI3K/Akt pathway and its alteration by Andrographolide during proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells. The results showed that Andrographolide significantly inhibited proliferation in a dose and time dependent manner. The growth factors, TGF-β and bFGF, induced migration of lens epithelial cells, which was lowered by Andrographolide. The growth factors also up regulated phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) and Akt (Thr308), which was abolished by simultaneous treatment of Andrographolide. Similar changes were also observed with the PI3K inhibitor, LY290042.
Our findings suggest that Andrographolide reduces proliferation, migration, and phosphorylated Akt levels in lens epithelial cells. Hence Andrographolide can be utilized for the prevention of PCO.
|Phytomedicine. 1999 Mar;6(1):27-31. |
|Inhibitory effect of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata on PAF-induced platelet aggregation.[Pubmed: 10228608 ]|
|Andrographolide, an active principle of the Chinese drug Andrographis paniculata, used for prevention and treatment of common cold in Scandinavia and known as an antiinflammatory, antiviral, antithrombotic, hypotensive and antiatherosclerotic drug, was investigated for its suggested influence on the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and the platelet-activating factor (PAF). |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Whereas in isolated human polymorph-nuclear leukocytes (PMNL) no influence on the biosynthesis was found, it could be shown that Andrographolide inhibits PAF-induced human blood platelet aggregation in a dose dependent manner (IC50-5 microM).
These results indicate that Andrographolide has a mechanism of action different from that of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and most likely associated with the cardiovascular and antithrombotic activity described of Andrographis paniculata.
|Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;135(2):399-406. |
|Andrographolide prevents oxygen radical production by human neutrophils: possible mechanism(s) involved in its anti-inflammatory effect.[Pubmed: 11815375 ]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Andrographolide (ANDRO) pretreatment significantly decreased fMLP-induced up-expression of both CD11b and CD18. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as quick intracellular calcium ([Ca(++)](i)) mobilization induced by fMLP displays two important signalling pathways in regulating the up-expression of Mac-1 by neutrophils. That ANDRO pretreatment diminished fMLP-induced production of H(2)O(2) and O(2)*(-), but failed to block that of [Ca(++)](i) mobilization suggested that the ROS but not [Ca(++)](i) signalling could be modulated by ANDRO. To clarify whether ROS production impeded by ANDRO could be an antagonism of fMLP binding, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a direct protein kinase C (PKC) activator, was introduced to activate ROS production. PMA triggered remarkable ROS production and adhesion, and were partially reversed by ANDRO. This indicated that a PKC-dependent mechanism might be interfered by ANDRO.
We conclude that the prevention of ROS production through, at least in part, modulation of PKC-dependent pathway could confer ANDRO the ability to down-regulate Mac-1 up-expression that is essential for neutrophil adhesion and transmigration.
|J Biosci. 2015 Jun;40(2):313-24. |
|Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells.[Pubmed: 25963259]|
|Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-beta 2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with Andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering Andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers alpha-SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with Andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with Andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that Andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations.
Our findings suggest that Andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO.
|J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Nov;351(2):474-83. |
|Andrographolide prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway.[Pubmed: 25204338 ]|
|Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are major transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
We investigated the effect of the specific SREBP suppressor Andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, on the regulation of SREBP signaling by use of Western blot, reporter gene assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, the antiobesity effects of Andrographolide were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results showed that Andrographolide downregulated the expressions of SREBPs target genes and decreased cellular lipid accumulation in vitro. Further, Andrographolide (100 mg/kg per day) attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in liver or adipose tissues, and improved serum lipid levels and insulin or glucose sensitivity in HFD-induced obese mice. Andrographolide effectively suppressed the respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and oxygen consumption, which may have contributed to the decreased body-weight gain of the obese mice fed with a HFD. Consistently, Andrographolide regulated SREBP target genes and metabolism-associated genes in liver or brown adipose tissue, which may have directly contributed to the lower lipid levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity.
Taken together, our results indicated that Andrographolide ameliorated lipid metabolism and improved glucose use in mice with HFD-induced obesity. Andrographolide has potential as a leading compound in the prevention or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.