|Source:||The roots of Lithosperraum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Deoxyshikonin may be a new drug candidate for wound healing and treatment of lymphatic diseases.
2. Deoxyshikonin enhances the ability of human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) to undergo time-dependent in vitro cord formation.
3. Deoxyshikonin and dodecyl gallate show significantly synergic antimicrobial activity with penicillin in vivo and in vitro, and can effectively reduce nasopharyngeal and lung colonization caused by different penicillin-resistant pneumococcal serotypes.
4. Deoxyshikonin exerts very good radical scavenging activities toward ABTS+ but shows moderate inhibition of DPPH·.
5. Deoxyshikonin shows cytotoxic activities , it can significantly decrease viability of HCT116 cells (IC50 values of 97.8 ug/mL).
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||3.6724 mL||18.3621 mL||36.7242 mL||73.4484 mL||91.8105 mL|
|5 mM||0.7345 mL||3.6724 mL||7.3448 mL||14.6897 mL||18.3621 mL|
|10 mM||0.3672 mL||1.8362 mL||3.6724 mL||7.3448 mL||9.1811 mL|
|50 mM||0.0734 mL||0.3672 mL||0.7345 mL||1.469 mL||1.8362 mL|
|100 mM||0.0367 mL||0.1836 mL||0.3672 mL||0.7345 mL||0.9181 mL|
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:148297.
|Enhancement of Lymphangiogenesis In Vitro via the Regulations of HIF-1α Expression and Nuclear Translocation by Deoxyshikonin.[Pubmed: 23737816]|
|The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Deoxyshikonin on lymphangiogenesis. Deoxyshikonin enhanced the ability of human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) to undergo time-dependent in vitro cord formation. Interestingly, an opposite result was observed in cells treated with shikonin. The increased cord formation ability following Deoxyshikonin treatment correlated with increased VEGF-C mRNA expression to higher levels than seen for VEGF-A and VEGF-D mRNA expression. We also found that Deoxyshikonin regulated cord formation of HMVEC-dLy by increasing the HIF-1 α mRNA level, HIF-1 α protein level, and the accumulation of HIF-1 α in the nucleus. Knockdown of the HIF-1 α gene by transfection with siHIF-1 α decreased VEGF-C mRNA expression and cord formation ability in HMVEC-dLy. Deoxyshikonin treatment could not recover VEGF-C mRNA expression and cord formation ability in HIF-1 α knockdown cells. This indicated that Deoxyshikonin induction of VEGF-C mRNA expression and cord formation in HMVEC-dLy on Matrigel occurred mainly via HIF-1 α regulation. We also found that Deoxyshikonin promoted wound healing in vitro by the induction of HMVEC-dLy migration into the wound gap. This study describes a new effect of Deoxyshikonin, namely, the promotion of cord formation by human endothelial cells via the regulation of HIF-1 α . The findings suggest that Deoxyshikonin may be a new drug candidate for wound healing and treatment of lymphatic diseases.|
Front Microbiol. 2015 May 20;6:479.
|Antibacterial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine monomers against Streptococcus pneumoniae via inhibiting pneumococcal histidine kinase (VicK).[Pubmed: 26042111]|
|The results showed that the MICs of 5'-(Methylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine, octanal 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazone, Deoxyshikonin, kavahin, and dodecyl gallate against S. pneumoniae were 37.1, 38.5, 17, 68.5, and 21 μg/mL, respectively. Deoxyshikonin and dodecyl gallate displayed strong inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus. These compounds showed no obvious cytotoxicity effects on Vero cells. Survival time of the mice infected by S. pneumoniae strains was prolonged by the treatment with the compounds. Importantly, all of the five compounds exerted antimicrobial effects against multidrug-resistant clinical strains of S. pneumoniae. Moreover, even at sub-MIC concentration, they inhibited cell division and biofilm formation. The five compounds all have enhancement effect on penicillin. Deoxyshikonin and dodecyl gallate showed significantly synergic antimicrobial activity with penicillin in vivo and in vitro, and effectively reduced nasopharyngeal and lung colonization caused by different penicillin-resistant pneumococcal serotypes. In addition, the two compounds also showed synergic antimicrobial activity with erythromycin and tetracycline. Taken together, our results suggest that these novel VicK inhibitors may be promising compounds against the pneumococcus, including penicillin-resistant strains.|
J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Mar 6;199:128-137.
|Wound healing effects of deoxyshikonin isolated from Jawoongo: In vitro and in vivo studies.[Pubmed: 27725239 ]|
|The results showed that Deoxyshikonin enhanced tube formation in HUVEC and migration in HaCaT cells. From the western blot analysis, we found that Deoxyshikonin stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in HaCaT cells. Moreover, 20μm Deoxyshikonin-treated groups showed accelerated wound closure compared with the controls in a mouse model of cutaneous wounds. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the current data indicate that Deoxyshikonin treatment elevated tube formation in HUVECs, and that Deoxyshikonin-induced proliferation and migration in HaCaT cells were mediated by the activation of ERK and p38 MAPKs, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that Deoxyshikonin in Jawoongo must be an active compound for may be wound healing.|
Food Chemistry, 2008 , 106 (1) :2-10.
|Antioxidants from a Chinese medicinal herb - Lithospermum erythrorhizon[Reference: WebLink]|
|Seven compounds, Deoxyshikonin (1), β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (2), isobutylshikonin (3), shikonin (4), 5,8-dihydroxy-2-(1-methoxy-4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione (5), β-sitosterol (6) and a mixture of two caffeic acid esters [7 (7a,7b)] were isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb et. Zucc. and identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 5 was isolated from this plant species for the first time. The antioxidant activities of the seven compounds were compared and evaluated through Rancimat method, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Results showed that, except compound 6, another 6 compounds all exhibited obvious antioxidant activities against four different methods. Compounds 4 and 7 exerted much more potent antioxidant effects on retarding the lard oxidation than that of BHT and both were found to exhibit strong reducing power. Their antioxidant activities, assessed by Rancimat method and reducing power, decreased in the following order, respectively: compound 7 > 4 > BHT > 2 > 3 > 5 > 1 > 6 and compound 7 > BHT > 4 > 2 approximately 3 approximately 5 > 1> 6. In addition, compounds 1-5 all exerted very good radical scavenging activities toward ABTS+ but showed moderate inhibition of DPPH·, while compound 7 presented as a powerful radical scavenger against both ABTS·+ and DPPH·. Thus, our results suggested that L. erythrorhizon could be a promising rich source of natural antioxidants.|
EXCLI J. 2017 Feb 16;16:73-88.
|Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of naphthoquinone pigments from Onosma visianii Clem.[Pubmed: 28435429 ]|
|In this study, the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds from the roots of Onosma visianii were investigated. By using different chromatographic techniques and appropriate spectroscopic methods, the seven naphthoquinones were described: Deoxyshikonin ( 1 ), isobutyrylshikonin ( 2 ), α-methylbutyrylshikonin ( 3 ), acetylshikonin ( 4 ), β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin ( 5 ), 5,8-O-dimethyl isobutyrylshikonin ( 6 ) and 5,8-O-dimethyl Deoxyshikonin ( 7 ). Among the tested compounds, 3 and 4 exhibited the highest antibacterial activities toward all tested bacterial species (MIC50 and MIC90 for gram positive bacteria: 6.40 μg/mL-12.79 μg/mL and 6.82 μg/mL-13.60 μg/mL, respectively; for gram negative bacteria: 4.27 μg/mL-8.53 μg/mL and 4.77 μg/mL-9.54 μg/mL, respectively). Also, naphthoquinones 3 and 4 exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50 values 86.0 μg/mL and 80.2 μg/mL, respectively), while compounds 1 , 3 , 4 and 5 significantly decreased viability of HCT116 cells (IC50 values of 97.8 μg/mL, 15.2 μg/mL, 24.6 μg/mL and 30.9 μg/mL, respectively). Our results indicated that all tested naphthoquinone pigments are potential candidates for clinical uses as antibacterial and cytotoxic agents.|