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    Glucoraphanin
    Glucoraphanin
    Information
    CAS No. 21414-41-5 Price
    Catalog No.CFN93151Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight437.5Type of CompoundMiscellaneous
    FormulaC12H23NO10S3Physical DescriptionPowder
    Download     COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Glucoraphanin, the bioprecursor of the widely extolled chemopreventive agent sulforaphane found in broccoli, it has antioxidant activity, it induces phase-I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and increases free radical generation in rat liver. Glucoraphanin can ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance through adipose tissue browning and reduction of metabolic endotoxemia in mice. Glucoraphanin and Glucoerucin effectively act as antagonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency.
    Targets: Nrf2 | P450 (e.g. CYP17)
    In vitro:
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(14):5801-5.
    Naturally-Occurring Glucosinolates, Glucoraphanin and Glucoerucin, are Antagonists to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor as Their Chemopreventive Potency.[Pubmed: 26320454]
    As a cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor is involved in several patho- physiological events leading to immunosuppression and cancer; hence antagonists of the Ah receptor may possess chemoprevention properties.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    It is known to modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzymes, for instance the CYP1 family of cytochromes P450 and quinone reductase, both important in the biotransformation of many chemical carcinogens via regulating phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Utilising chemically-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay it was revealed that intact glucosinolates, Glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, isolated from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica and Eruca sativa ripe seeds, respectively, are such antagonists. Both glucosinolates were poor ligands for the Ah receptor; however, they effectively antagonised activation of the receptor by the avid ligand benzo[a]pyrene. Indeed, intact glucosinolate Glucoraphanin was a more potent antagonist to the receptor than glucoerucin.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    It can be concluded that both glucosinolates effectively act as antagonists for the Ah receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency.
    In vivo:
    Diabetes. 2017 May;66(5):1222-1236.
    Glucoraphanin Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance Through Adipose Tissue Browning and Reduction of Metabolic Endotoxemia in Mice.[Pubmed: 28209760 ]
    Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Thus, we examined whether dietary Glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Glucoraphanin supplementation attenuated weight gain, decreased hepatic steatosis, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed wild-type mice but not in HFD-fed Nrf2 knockout mice. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, Glucoraphanin-treated HFD-fed mice had lower plasma lipopolysaccharide levels and decreased relative abundance of the gram-negative bacteria family Desulfovibrionaceae in their gut microbiomes. In HFD-fed mice, Glucoraphanin increased energy expenditure and the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) in inguinal and epididymal adipose depots. Additionally, in this group, Glucoraphanin attenuated hepatic lipogenic gene expression, lipid peroxidation, classically activated M1-like macrophage accumulation, and inflammatory signaling pathways.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    By promoting fat browning, limiting metabolic endotoxemia-related chronic inflammation, and modulating redox stress, Glucoraphanin may mitigate obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.
    Glucoraphanin Description
    Source: The seeds of Raphanus sativus L.
    Solvent: DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Recently, ChemFaces products have been cited in many studies from excellent and top scientific journals

    Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):249-261.e12.
    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.12.019.

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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 2.2857 mL 11.4286 mL 22.8571 mL 45.7143 mL 57.1429 mL
    5 mM 0.4571 mL 2.2857 mL 4.5714 mL 9.1429 mL 11.4286 mL
    10 mM 0.2286 mL 1.1429 mL 2.2857 mL 4.5714 mL 5.7143 mL
    50 mM 0.0457 mL 0.2286 mL 0.4571 mL 0.9143 mL 1.1429 mL
    100 mM 0.0229 mL 0.1143 mL 0.2286 mL 0.4571 mL 0.5714 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Kinase Assay:
    World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jun 21;23(23):4146-4157.
    Antioxidant dietary approach in treatment of fatty liver: New insights and updates.[Pubmed: 28694655]
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinicopathological condition, encompassing a range of conditions caused by lipid deposition within liver cells. To date, no approved drugs are available for the treatment of NAFLD, despite the fact that it represents a serious and growing clinical problem in the Western world. Identification of the molecular mechanisms leading to NAFLD-related fat accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative balance impairment facilitates the development of specific interventions aimed at preventing the progression of hepatic steatosis.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    In this review, we focus our attention on the role of dysfunctions in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the pathogenesis of fatty liver. Major data from the literature about the mitochondrial targeting of some antioxidant molecules as a potential treatment for hepatic steatosis are described and critically analysed. There is ample evidence of the positive effects of several classes of antioxidants, such as polyphenols (i.e., resveratrol, quercetin, coumestrol, anthocyanins, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin), carotenoids (i.e., lycopene, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin) and glucosinolates (i.e., Glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, sinigrin and allyl-isothiocyanate), on the reversion of fatty liver. Although the mechanism of action is not yet fully elucidated, in some cases an indirect interaction with mitochondrial metabolism is expected. We believe that such knowledge will eventually translate into the development of novel therapeutic approaches for fatty liver.
    Mutat Res. 2006 Mar 20;595(1-2):125-36.
    Glucoraphanin, the bioprecursor of the widely extolled chemopreventive agent sulforaphane found in broccoli, induces phase-I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and increases free radical generation in rat liver.[Pubmed: 16442570 ]
    Epidemiological and animal studies linking high fruit and vegetable consumption to lower cancer risk have strengthened the belief that long-term administration of isolated naturally occurring dietary constituents could reduce the risk of cancer. In recent years, metabolites derived from phytoalexins, such as Glucoraphanin found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), have gained much attention as potential cancer chemopreventive agents.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    The protective effect of these micronutrients is assumed to be due to the inhibition of Phase-I carcinogen-bioactivating enzymes and/or induction of Phase-II detoxifying enzymes, an assumption that still remains uncertain. The protective effect of Glucoraphanin is thought to be due to sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate metabolite produced from Glucoraphanin by myrosinase. Here we show, in rat liver, that while Glucoraphanin slightly induces Phase-II enzymes, it powerfully boosts Phase-I enzymes, including activators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines and olefins. Induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1/2, CYP3A1/2 and CYP2E1 was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. CYP induction was paralleled by an increase in the corresponding mRNA levels. Concomitant with this Phase-I induction, we also found that Glucoraphanin generated large amount of various reactive radical species, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry coupled to a radical-probe technique.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    This suggests that long-term uncontrolled administration of Glucoraphanin could actually pose a potential health hazard.