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    Linoleic acid
    Information
    CAS No. 60-33-3 Price $50 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN93168Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight280.5Type of CompoundMiscellaneous
    FormulaC18H32O2Physical DescriptionOil
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Essential fatty acid. Prostaglandin precursor.Linoleic acid could be involved in the inflammatory response through stimulation of the neutrophil chemokine, IL-8.
    Targets: IL Recepter | MCP-1
    In vivo:
    Clinical Nutrition, 2003, 22(6):529-535.
    Linoleic acid, but not oleic acid, upregulates the production of interleukin-8 by human intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated from patients with Crohn's disease.[Reference: WebLink]
    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that dietary fatty acids, Linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA), could be involved in the inflammatory response through stimulation of the neutrophil chemokine, IL-8.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Human intestinal smooth muscle (HISM) cells were isolated from normal patients and patients with Crohn's disease and cultured for 24 h with LA or OA in the presence or absence of oxidative stress. The concentrations of IL-8 were measured in the media and cellular oxidative stress was quantitated by measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs). Spontaneous production of IL-8 was significantly higher in HISM cells isolated from Crohn's bowel compared to control bowel. LA caused a marked, nine-fold, increase in IL-8 secretion by Crohn's cells, an effect that could be simulated in normal HISM cells by co-incubation of LA with an oxidizing solution (Ox) composed of hypoxanthine+xanthine oxidase+FeSO4 (OxLA). These effects were inhibited by vitamins C and E. Treatment of Crohn's cells with OxLA did not further increase IL-8 over that of LA alone. The effect of LA alone was not associated with an increase in cellular oxidative stress as quantitated by TBARSs. In contrast to the results with LA, treatment with OA or OxOA did not increase IL-8 in either normal or Crohn's cells. In addition, OA protected Crohn's cells from the increase in TBARSs induced by Ox. In contrast to IL-8, spontaneous production of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) was significantly lower in Crohn's HISM cells as compared to normal cells and exposure to OxLA did not increase its production.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    LA, but not OA, increased the production of IL-8 by HISM cells. These results suggest that replacement of LA by OA in the diet of Crohn's patients and increased intake of a diet rich in antioxidants could be beneficial in decreasing inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease.
    Linoleic acid Description
    Source: Constit. of most vegetable oils and animal fats
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 3.5651 mL 17.8253 mL 35.6506 mL 71.3012 mL 89.1266 mL
    5 mM 0.713 mL 3.5651 mL 7.1301 mL 14.2602 mL 17.8253 mL
    10 mM 0.3565 mL 1.7825 mL 3.5651 mL 7.1301 mL 8.9127 mL
    50 mM 0.0713 mL 0.3565 mL 0.713 mL 1.426 mL 1.7825 mL
    100 mM 0.0357 mL 0.1783 mL 0.3565 mL 0.713 mL 0.8913 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.