||(−)Epicatechin is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. It is a strong antioxidant, has antinociceptive, insulin mimic actions and improves heart health;
it has the potential to increase CREB-regulated gene expression and increase GluR2 levels and thus modulate neurotransmission, plasticity and synaptogenesis. (-)-Epicatechin inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 3.2 μM; it inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of iNOS by blocking the nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-κB.
||5-HT Receptor | Potassium Channel | ATPase | LOX | IL Receptor | NOS | NO | ERK | Akt | COX-1 | p65 | NF-κB|
|J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Jul 4;60(26):6515-23. |
|Antioxidant activity and diffusion of catechin and epicatechin from antioxidant active films made of poly(L-lactic acid).[Pubmed: 22681400]|
|Active membranes and food packaging containing antioxidants like catechin and Epicatechin, combined with the use of materials made of biopolymers obtained from renewable sources, could create a novel alternative to reduce oxidation in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Poly(94% L-lactic acid) films containing 1.28% catechin and 1.50% Epicatechin were extruded in a pilot plant-scale extrusion machine. The diffusion kinetics of catechin and Epicatechin into 95% ethanol at 20, 30, 40, and 50 °C and 50% ethanol at 40 °C displayed Fickian release behavior and diffusion coefficients between 0.5 and 50 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. According to the Arrhenius equation, the energy of activation for the diffusion of catechin and Epicatechin in the films was 110.43 and 98.92 kJ/mol, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the films was measured in methanol extracts containing 46.42 μg/mL of catechin and 57.52 μg/mL of Epicatechin as 32.90 and 36.68% of scavenging the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, respectively.
|Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 24;103(4):1024-9. |
|(-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans.[Pubmed: 16418281 ]|
|Epidemiological and medical anthropological investigations suggest that flavanol-rich foods exert cardiovascular health benefits. Endothelial dysfunction, a prognostically relevant key event in atherosclerosis, is characterized by a decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) and impaired flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD).
METHODS AND RESULTS:
We show in healthy male adults that the ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with acute elevations in levels of circulating NO species, an enhanced FMD response of conduit arteries, and an augmented microcirculation. In addition, the concentrations and the chemical profiles of circulating flavanol metabolites were determined, and multivariate regression analyses identified (-)-Epicatechin and its metabolite, Epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide, as independent predictors of the vascular effects after flavanol-rich cocoa ingestion. A mixture of flavanols/metabolites, resembling the profile and concentration of circulating flavanol compounds in plasma after cocoa ingestion, induced a relaxation in preconstricted rabbit aortic rings ex vivo, thus mimicking acetylcholine-induced relaxations. Ex vivo flavanol-induced relaxation, as well as the in vivo increases in FMD, were abolished by inhibition of NO synthase. Oral administration of chemically pure (-)-Epicatechin to humans closely emulated acute vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa. Finally, the concept that a chronic intake of high-flavanol diets is associated with prolonged, augmented NO synthesis is supported by data that indicate a correlation between the chronic consumption of a cocoa flavanol-rich diet and the augmented urinary excretion of NO metabolites.
Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (-)-Epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa.
|Life Sci. 2013 Oct 17;93(17):637-45. |
|Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of epicatechin in diabetic rats.[Pubmed: 24012613 ]|
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of Epicatechin as well as the possible mechanisms of action in diabetic rats.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rats were injected with streptozotocin to produce hyperglycemia. The formalin test was used to assess the nociceptive activity.
Acute pre-treatment with Epicatechin (0.03-30 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented formalin-induced nociception in diabetic rats. Furthermore, daily or every other day treatment for 2 weeks with Epicatechin (0.03-30 mg/kg, i.p.) also prevented formalin-induced nociception in diabetic rats. Acute Epicatechin-induced antinociception was prevented by l-NAME (N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, 1-10mg/kg, non-selective nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (0.1-1mg/kg, selective neuronal nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor), ODQ (1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazolo(4,2-a)quinoxalin-1-one, 0.2-2mg/kg, guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) or glibenclamide (1-10mg/kg, ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker). Moreover, Epicatechin (3mg/kg)-induced antinociception was fully prevented by methiothepin (0.1-1mg/kg, serotonergic receptor antagonist), WAY-100635 (0.03-0.3mg/kg, selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) or SB-224289 (0.03-0.3mg/kg, selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist). In contrast, BRL-15572 (0.03-0.3mg/kg, selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist) only slightly prevented the antinociceptive effect of Epicatechin. Naloxone (0.1-1mg/kg, opioid antagonist) did not modify Epicatechin's effect.
Data suggest the involvement of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-K(+) channel pathway as well as activation of 5-HT1A and 5HT1B, and at a lesser extent, 5-HT1D, but not opioid, receptors in the antinociceptive effect of Epicatechin in diabetic rats. Our data suggest that acute or chronic treatment with Epicatechin may prove to be effective to treat nociceptive hypersensitivity in diabetic patients.
|Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:691015. |
|Epicatechin and catechin modulate endothelial activation induced by platelets of patients with peripheral artery disease.[Pubmed: 25180068 ]|
|Platelet activation contributes to the alteration of endothelial function, a critical initial step in atherogenesis through the production and release of prooxidant mediators. There is uncertainty about the precise role of polyphenols in interaction between platelets and endothelial cells (ECs).
We aimed to investigate whether polyphenols are able to reduce endothelial activation induced by activated platelets.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
First, we compared platelet activation and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 healthy subjects (HS) and 10 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Then, we evaluated the effect of Epicatechin plus catechin on platelet-HUVEC interaction by measuring soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), NOx production, and eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS) in HUVEC. Compared to HS, PAD patients had enhanced platelet activation. Conversely, PAD patients had lower FMD than HS. Supernatant of activated platelets from PAD patients induced an increase of sCAMs release and a decrease of p-eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability compared to unstimulated HUVEC. Coincubation of HUVEC, with supernatant of PAD platelets patients, pretreated with a scalar dose of the polyphenols, resulted in a decrease of sCAMs release and in an increase of p-eNOS and NO bioavailability.
This study demonstrates that Epicatechin plus catechin reduces endothelial activation induced by activated platelets.