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    Natural Products
    CAS No. 491-70-3 Price $40 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN98784Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight286.2 Type of CompoundFlavonoids
    FormulaC15H10O6Physical DescriptionYellow powder
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  • Biological Activity
    Description: Luteolin is a non-selective phisphodiesterase PDE inhibitor for PDE1-5 with Ki of 15.0 μM, 6.4 μM, 13.9 μM, 11.1 μM and 9.5 μM, respectively. Luteolin has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-allergy anti-myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and anticancer, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Luteolin inhibits NF-κB, and inhibits interleukin (IL)-1β function induction of the inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.
    Targets: IL Receptor | COX | NF-kB | p65 | Akt | ERK | JNK | ROS | NADPH-oxidase | AP-1 | HIF | TNF-α | VEGFR | STAT | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | FAK | Bcl-2/Bax | PI3K | PDE
    In vitro:
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Jan;1853(1):126-35.
    Biphasic effects of luteolin on interleukin-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in glioblastoma cells.[Pubmed: 25409926]
    Success in developing therapeutic approaches to target brain tumor-associated inflammation in patients has been limited. Given that the inflammatory microenvironment is a hallmark signature of solid tumor development, anti-inflammatory targeting strategies have been envisioned as preventing glioblastoma initiation or progression. Consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers, a chemopreventive effect that is, in part, attributed to their high content of phytochemicals with potent anti-inflammatory properties.
    We explored whether Luteolin, a common flavonoid in many types of plants, may inhibit interleukin (IL)-1β function induction of the inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. We found that IL-1β triggered COX-2 expression in U-87 glioblastoma cells and synergized with Luteolin to potentiate or inhibit that induction in a biphasic manner. Luteolin pretreatment of cells inhibited IL-1β-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB, nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase in a concentration-dependent manner. Luteolin also inhibited AKT phosphorylation and survivin expression, while it triggered both caspase-3 cleavage and expression of glucose-regulated protein 78. These effects were all potentiated by IL-1β, in part through increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Finally, Luteolin was able to reduce IL-1 receptor gene expression, and treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist or gene silencing of IL-1 receptor prevented IL-1β/Luteolin-induced COX-2 expression.
    Our results document a novel adaptive cellular response to Luteolin, which triggers anti-survival and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to the chemopreventive properties of this diet-derived molecule.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014 Dec 1;281(2):230-41.
    Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways.[Pubmed: 25448439]
    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
    We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with Luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with Luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, Luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, Luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that Luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of Luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation.
    Overall, our results indicate that Luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis.
    Mol Med Rep . 2015 Sep;12(3):4196-4202.
    Luteolin exerts an anticancer effect on NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung cancer cells through the induction of Sirt1-mediated apoptosis[Pubmed: 26096576]
    Luteolin is a falconoid compound, which exhibits anticancer properties, however, its contribution to Sirt1-mediated apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study confirmed that the anticancer effect of Luteolin on NCI‑H460 cells was through Sirt1‑mediated apoptosis. The NCI‑H460 cells were treated with different concentrations of Luteolin, and a 3‑(4,5‑dimethyl‑2‑thiazolyl)‑2,5‑diphnyl‑2H‑tetrazolium bromide assay, cell cycle analysis and annexin‑V/fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium double staining were performed to assess the apoptotic effect of Luteolin. Wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to confirm the inhibition of NCI‑H460 cell migration. The protein levels of Sirt1 were knocked down in the NCI‑H460 cells using a lentivirus to further investigate the role of this protein, and the expression levels of the apoptotic associated proteins, Bad, Bcl‑2, Bax, caspase‑3 and Sirt1, were measured using western blotting. The results of the present study demonstrated that Luteolin exerted an anticancer effect against NCI‑H460 cells through Sirt1‑mediated apoptosis and the inhibition of cell migration.
    In vivo:
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2008 Nov;8(7):634-46.
    Luteolin, a flavonoid with potential for cancer prevention and therapy.[Pubmed: 18991571 ]
    Luteolin, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is a common flavonoid that exists in many types of plants including fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Plants rich in Luteolin have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy and anticancer, Luteolin functions as either an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant biochemically. The biological effects of Luteolin could be functionally related to each other. For instance, the anti-inflammatory activity may be linked to its anticancer property. Luteolin's anticancer property is associated with the induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, Luteolin sensitizes cancer cells to therapeutic-induced cytotoxicity through suppressing cell survival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and stimulating apoptosis pathways including those that induce the tumor suppressor p53. These observations suggest that Luteolin could be an anticancer agent for various cancers. Furthermore, recent epidemiological studies have attributed a cancer prevention property to Luteolin.
    In this review, we summarize the progress of recent research on Luteolin, with a particular focus on its anticancer role and molecular mechanisms underlying this property of Luteolin.
    Luteolin Description
    Source: The leaves of Dracocephalum ruyschiana L.
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to:

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 3.4941 mL 17.4703 mL 34.9406 mL 69.8812 mL 87.3515 mL
    5 mM 0.6988 mL 3.4941 mL 6.9881 mL 13.9762 mL 17.4703 mL
    10 mM 0.3494 mL 1.747 mL 3.4941 mL 6.9881 mL 8.7352 mL
    50 mM 0.0699 mL 0.3494 mL 0.6988 mL 1.3976 mL 1.747 mL
    100 mM 0.0349 mL 0.1747 mL 0.3494 mL 0.6988 mL 0.8735 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Kinase Assay:
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Oct 1;24(19):4672-7.
    Luteolin from Flos Chrysanthemi and its derivatives: New small molecule Bcl-2 protein inhibitors.[Pubmed: 25193233]
    Over-expression of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins is closely related to tumorigenesis and associated with drug resistance.
    Here we report that Luteolin, a main substance found in Flos Chrysanthemi, directly binds to and shows inhibitory activity against the Bcl-2 protein. We studied the binding mode of Luteolin and its derivatives with target proteins, their structure-activity relationship, and their effect on the human leukemia cell line HL-60.
    The results suggest that Luteolin and its derivatives with a benzyl group introduced to the B ring, are new small molecule Bcl-2 protein inhibitors, and their anti-tumor activity is likely related to their effect on the Bcl-2 protein.
    Cell Research:
    Phytother Res. 2014 Sep;28(9):1383-91.
    Luteolin inhibits hyperglycemia-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and its epigenetic mechanism in human monocytes.[Pubmed: 24623679]
    Hyperglycemia is a key feature in diabetes. Hyperglycemia has been implicated as a major contributor to several complications of diabetes. High glucose levels induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Luteolin is a flavone isolated from celery, green pepper, perilla leaf, and chamomile tea. Luteolin has been reported to possess antimutagenic, antitumorigenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of Luteolin on proinflammatory cytokine secretion and its underlying epigenetic regulation in high-glucose-induced human monocytes.
    Human monocytic (THP-1) cells were cultured under controlled (14.5 mM mannitol), normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mM glucose), or hyperglycemic (HG, 20 mM glucose) conditions, in the absence or presence of Luteolin. Luteolin (3-10 μM) was added for 48 h. While hyperglycemic conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, NF-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) release from THP-1 cells, Luteolin suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. Luteolin also significantly reduced CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300) gene expression, as well as the levels of acetylation and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of the CBP/p300 protein, which is a known NF-κB coactivator.
    These results suggest that Luteolin inhibits HG-induced cytokine production in monocytes, through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. We therefore suggest that Luteolin may be a potential candidate for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications.
    Animal Research:
    Life Sci. 2015 Feb 1;122:15-25.
    Luteolin inhibits ROS-activated MAPK pathway in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.[Pubmed: 25476833 ]
    Luteolin is a falconoid compound that has an antioxidant effect, but its contribution to ROS-activated MAPK pathways in ischemia/reperfusion injury is seldom reported. Here, we have confirmed that it exhibits an antioxidant effect in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) by inhibiting ROS-activated MAPK pathways.
    We exposed rat hearts into the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation for 30min followed by 1h of reperfusion. Observations were carried out using electrocardiography; detection of hemodynamic parameters; and testing levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was measured by western blot and transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the myocardial ultrastructure. Rat H9c2 cell in 95% N2 and 5% CO2 stimulated the MIRI. Oxidation system mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR; mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry; western blot analysis was used to assay caspase-3, -8, and -9 and MAPK pathway protein expression; the MAPK pathway was inhibited using SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and SP600125 (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor) before H9c2 cells were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury to show the modulation of the changes in ROS generation, cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo, Luteolin can ameliorate the impaired mitochondrial morphology, regulating the MAPK pathway to protect MIRI. In vitro, Luteolin can affect the oxidation system, mitochondrial membrane potential and MAPK pathway to anti-apoptosis.
    These results reveal a ROS-MAPK mediated mechanism and mitochondrial pathway through which Luteolin can protect myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.