Fargesin has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antihypertensive , and anti-bone-resorbing effects, it is widely used in the treatment of managing rhinitis, inflammation, histamine, sinusitis, and headache. Fargesin improves lipid and glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice by activating Akt and AMPK in WAT. It as a potential β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist protects the hearts against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis.
|Fitoterapia. 2015 May 27;105:16-25. |
|Fargesin as a potential β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist protects the hearts against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis.[Pubmed: 26025856]|
|Fargesin displayed similar chromatographic retention peak to metoprolol in the cardiac muscle/cell membrane chromatography (CM/CMC) and β1 adrenergic receptor/cell membrane chromatography (β1AR/CMC) models. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
To provide more biological information about Fargesin, we investigated the effects of Fargesin on isoproterenol-(ISO-) induced cells injury in the high expression β1 adrenergic receptor/Chinese hamster ovary-S (β1AR/CHO-S) cells and occluding the left coronary artery- (LAD-) induced myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury in rats. The results in vitro showed that ISO-induced canonical cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) levels were decreased by Fargesin in β1AR/CHO-S cells. Fargesin attenuated the serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and improved histopathological changes of ischemic myocardium compared with the I/R rats. Similar results were obtained with Evans Blue/TTC staining, in which Fargesin notably reduced infarct size. Moreover, compared with the I/R group, Fargesin increased COX release and the activities of some endogenous antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), but suppressed malondialdehyde (MDA), and intracellular ROS release. Additionally, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated Fargesin suppressed myocardial apoptosis, which may be related to inhibition of caspase-3 activity.
Taken together, these results provided substantial evidences that Fargesin as a potential β1AR antagonist through cAMP/PKA pathway could protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The underlining mechanism may be related to inhibiting oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis.
|Phytomedicine. 2017 Jan 15;24:96-103. |
|Fargesin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 monocytes by suppressing PKC-dependent AP-1 and NF-ĸB signaling.[Pubmed: 28160867 ]|
|Fargesin is a lignan from Magnolia fargesii, an oriental medicine used in the treatment of nasal congestion and sinusitis. The anti-inflammatory properties of this compound have not been fully elucidated yet.
This study focused on assessing the anti-inflammatory effects of Fargesin on phorbal ester (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 human monocytes, and the molecular mechanisms underlying them.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Cell viability was evaluated by MTS assay. Protein expression levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed by Western blotting, ELISA, Immunofluorescence assay. mRNA levels were measured by Real-time PCR. Promoter activities were elucidated by Luciferase assay.
It was found that pre-treatment with Fargesin attenuated significantly the expression of two major inflammatory mediators, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Fargesin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) and chemokine (CCL-5). Besides, nuclear translocation of transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which regulate multiple pro-inflammatory genes, was suppressed by Fargesin in a PKC-dependent manner. Furthermore, among the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), only c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was downregulated by Fargesin in a PKC-dependent manner, and this reduction was involved in PMA-induced AP-1 and NF-ĸB nuclear translocation attenuation, demonstrated using a specific JNK inhibitor.
Taken together, our results found that Fargesin exhibits anti-inflammation effects on THP-1 cells via suppression of PKC pathway including downstream JNK, nuclear factors AP-1 and NF-ĸB. These results suggest that Fargesin has anti-inflammatory properties with potential applications in drug development against inflammatory disorders.
|Invest New Drugs. 2014 Feb;32(1):1-13. |
|Tetrahydrofurofuran-type lignans inhibit breast cancer-mediated bone destruction by blocking the vicious cycle between cancer cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts.[Pubmed: 23673814]|
|Breast cancer frequently spreads to bone. The interaction between bone metastases and microenvironment, referred as the "vicious cycle", increases both tumor burden and bone destruction. Therefore, inhibition at any point in this "vicious cycle" can reduce malignant osteolytic lesions in patients with advanced breast cancer. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this study, we evaluated whether tetrahydrofurofuran-type lignans derived from Magnoliae Flos, commonly used in traditional Asian medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, could block breast cancer-mediated bone loss. Aschatin, Fargesin, lirioresinol B dimethyl ether, and magnolin at noncytotoxic concentrations suppressed mRNA expression and secretion of osteolytic factor PTHrP in MDA-MB-231 metastatic human breast cancer cells. Fargesin inhibited TGF-β-stimulated cell viability, migration, and invasion and decreased TGF-β-induced PTHrP production in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, these lignans reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-treated hFOB1.19 human osteoblastic cells and inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages. Aschatin, Fargesin, lirioresinol B dimethyl ether, and magnolin substantially reduced bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts by inhibiting MMP-9 and cathepsin K activities. Furthermore, orally administered Fargesin inhibited tumor growth and cancer-mediated bone destruction in mice with MDA-MB-231 cells injected into calvarial tissues. Aschatin, Fargesin, lirioresinol B dimethyl ether, and magnolin blocked initiation and progression of the "vicious cycle" between breast cancer metastases and bone microenvironment by inhibiting PTHrP production in breast cancer cells and osteoclastic bone resorption.
Therefore, these tetrahydrofurofuran-type lignans have the potential to serve as beneficial agents to prevent and treat cancer-induced bone destruction in breast cancer patients.
|Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;94(8):900-6. |
|Antihypertensive effects of fargesin in vitro and in vivo via attenuating oxidative stress and promoting nitric oxide release.[Pubmed: 27409158 ]|
|Fargesin, a bioactive neolignan isolated from magnolia plants, is widely used in the treatment of managing rhinitis, inflammation, histamine, sinusitis, and headache. To provide more biological information about Fargesin, we investigated the effects of Fargesin on rat aortic rings and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats.|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In vitro, Fargesin caused concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in rat isolated aortic rings induced by KCl and norepinephrine. The effect was weakened by endothelium denudation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition. In vivo, the evolution of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was followed by weekly measurements. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin (ET) levels, NO and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and plasma and liver oxidative stress markers were determined at the end of the experimental period. After 5 weeks of Fargesin treatment, we found that Fargesin treatment reduced SBP, cardiac hypertrophy, and Ang II and ET levels of hypertensive rats. Increased NOS activity and NO level were observed in Fargesin-treated rats. Normalisation of plasma MDA concentrations and improvement of the antioxidant defence system in plasma and liver accompanied the antihypertensive effect of Fargesin.
Taken together, these results provided substantial evidences that Fargesin has antihypertensive effect in 2K1C hypertensive rats via inhibiting oxidative stress and promoting NO release.